A Demonstration of Radiometric Properties
This paper outlines the universe as an accelerative process. I begin with extinguishment singularities as precursor to the primordial singularity.
The premise is the universe is one of accelerative change.
In extinguishment an irreversible collapse would take place as countless galaxies and black holes fall inward. (1) Time and space and motion collapse. Temperature as a product of atomic motion also collapses.
Extinguishment could account for Oblers’ paradox, the night sky remaining dark. Numerous galaxies with surrounding energy and associated space/time would not remain in the formed universe.
Energy would also be unable to surmount the inner extinguishment horizon. The night sky retains darkness.
The Microwave Background Radiation
The microwave background radiation would be expanding with accelerative expansion. From a completed frame of reference an observer then measures the microwave background radiation.
The Forming Parameters
In tracing back to the primordial universe, time would become less complete. The reduction becomes as the timelessness of the primordial singularity.
The timelessness of the primordial singularity, in the release of primordial plasma, could be accounting for vast amounts of energy and mass.
Closely spaced primordial galaxies first form from primordial plasma and then reform. As mass builds from primordial energy, gravitational strengths become stronger. Time and space are also becoming “fuller”.
As higher atomic elements form, radioactive atoms also form. Yet due to the underlying accelerative expansion radioactive decay does not change. An observer measures the rate of radioactive decay the same over time and space.
Entropy as a Forming “Parameter”
Without the formation of mass, space, and time; entropy could not function. Entropy, in an oxymoron, would also be “a product” of accelerative process.
Yet entropy, in the breakdown of structure, could keep the universe from becoming “frozen” on one level even as matter increases in complexity.
Note: in accelerative process the positive would be “built” from the negative as entropy.
Using Inference in Accelerative Process
One could infer the accelerative recession of the local galaxies could also be stretching light and primordial energy waves.
Then as also inferred: the primordial singularity itself would have little or no red shifting due to the subsequent cosmological expansion.
Note: accelerative expansion would be secondary in red shifting. In the expanding balloon example the cause of expansion would first be the energy used in expanding the balloon.
With each doubling of accelerative distance the “forward pull” of distant, massive gravitational fields would have little or no effect on primordial galaxies. Primordial galaxies would have weak gravitational fields. (2)
Conversely, gravitational forces, as an accelerative product of increasing inertia, mass, and acceleration, would be predominate in older regions.
Note: accelerative expansion would increase gravitational forces over time and space. It does not explain the nature of gravitation.
The First and Second Law of Thermodynamics
The release of white hole energy from “back to back” extinguishment singularities (without formed space and time) could be offsetting extinguishment reductions. The total quantity of energy in the universe could be as a closed system.
The First Law: the total energy in a closed system is constant.
The Second Law: the quality of energy irreversibly degrades. (3)
In the First Law, primordial energy could have its maximum potential, its highest quality, for building the parameters of the universe.
In the Second Law, extinguishment could be the Second Law’s ultimate degrading.
Both Laws would function within the non changeability of the accelerative process itself in forming the parameters of the universe.
Note: Albert Einstein in his earlier work felt the universe was static. In support, accelerative process would be unchangeable in forming mass and space/time.
In an accelerative perspective a leveling in the rate of galactic acceleration could be occurring in older regions with strong gravitational fields. This would then be followed by an increasing “downward” acceleration with countless galaxies and galactic black holes falling into extinguishment singularities. The extinguishment would be complete with no visibility, except the galaxies approaching in-falling. (See Ref. 1)
In the inter relatedness of the formed parameters, extinguishment would be driven by the collapsing parameters. Gravitational forces would also collapse as gravitational forces could no longer be “supported” by the accelerative process.
As time and space would be extinguished, extinguishment singularities could also be as “back to back” with the white hole singularity.
Extinguishment, in the breakdown of gravitation, could be the primordial white hole timelessly releasing energetic plasmas, now 14 billion light years (in completed time), over the accelerative horizon in an universal, timeless renewal.
Note: the dilemma posed by gravitation resolved itself when it became apparent the solution was provided by interrelatedness – one parameter could not exist without the others.
This resolution could also supported by that energy can neither be created or destroyed. It could though in extinguishment of the formed parameters be “resourced”.
The Accelerative Zero
When including the accelerative recession of local galaxies in lengthening primordial energy waves (in addition to other causes of red shift), the universe could have from the white hole primordial singularity an accelerative reference zero of low to no initial primordial galaxy recessions.
In accelerative process at rest in a gravitational field could then be the same case as at rest in an accelerated frame of reference.
Non Reducible Information
The likelihood of non reducible information is inferred from the nature of accelerative process and from the “no information lost paradox”. (4)
As the formed parameters would be accelerative products, information itself could be non reducible. Non reducible information could be a timeless “statelessness” underlying time, space, matter, gravitation, and the finiteness of motion.
Quantum computing with its rapidity of computing may be touching an “inner” “statelessness” underlying space and time.
References & Notes
Could this “great attractor” be an extinguishment singularity with no visibility except countless galaxies falling, accelerating, toward an unknown “object”?
Sourced: Simons Foundation, April 25, 2018, referencing closely spaced,
primordial appearing galaxies with weak appearing gravitational forces.
(3) http://pespmc1.vub.ac.be/ENTRTHER.html “Entropy and the Laws of Thermodynamics”, Principia Cybernetica Web, J. de Rosnay, July 3, 1998. (I use this reference for its basic presentation.)
(4) https://www.space.com/24899-black-holes-stars-information-paradox-html Katia Moskvitch, Science & Astronomy, March 5, 2014.
(5) Would the accelerative zero tie to the mathematics of the universe?
(6) A study of accelerative process would require a distinction be made between the completion of Newtonian Physics and the incompletion of an accelerative process. This accelerative process would underlie the completion of an observer’s frame of reference. In an accelerative frame of reference, an observer and an observer’s measurements then set the completion of the universe.
(6) The following demonstration uses accelerative process physics – which I call radiometric physics.
A Demonstration of Radiometric Properties
In a work bench vacuum chamber I observed the force exerted on a radiometer vane. Yet due to the minute force, I was unable to continue testing my observations.
The following reference substantially increases a radiometric force to now being demonstrable in a full or greater atmosphere.
In “The Encapsulated Radiometric Engine”, US20060000215A1, paragraphs [0006-8] is an F2 nanopore plate [0006, F2 Plate], mounted in the open air. (1)
R1. One could visualize that when an F2 nanopore plate would be attached within a “test vehicle” that the force would continue to be applied. The enclosed plate would still be free to move as an integral component of “the vehicle”.
The transfer of molecular momentum to the F2 plate would remain, as before, as the same physics. The “vehicle” would be accelerated by the same force.
R2. A nanopore plate with similar specifications may need to be made. Once an F2 type plate would be in hand this demonstration could readily be carried out.
R3. Would some larger inter spaced pore openings facilitate re-circulation or would the F2 Plate nanopores be of a sufficient size for circulation of de-energized molecules back through the center of the nanopores? ( I am reminder here of the near surface slip effects on a radiometer vane.)
R4. As a pretest, focus a light on a suspended nanopore plate. A strong plate response (as more than convection currents) would proceed to the next step.
A focused light could then also be used as the energizing source.
R5. A “test vehicle” for the support of a plate or plates could be an open, transparent cylinder, say 10 cm in diameter and in length, mounted on wheels on a level to up sloping surface. The “test vehicle” should be relatively light.
Exterior and interior temperatures and pressures are to be near room temperature and atmospheric pressure.
If using embedded thermocouples, an energy supplying battery could be mounted inside “the vehicle” to also show the internalization of the force.
R6. Next fully close the ends of “the test vehicle”. A pressure release vent (or a small aperture lightly taped over) is to relieve any excess pressure. For safety, turn off the energy source before braking “the vehicle”.
R7. Enclosing the plate(s) to input energy into the macro “vehicle” momentum will be apparent when the energy transfer is diagrammed to “the vehicle” macro momentum.
R8. As the force is applied within a larger mass, “internal” is used as to the exterior of “the vehicle”.
In this radiometric physics, it seems there would be little difference as to whether the surface of a larger macro mass would be on the inside or on the outside or within the interior surfaces of the nanopores.
In a narrow sense this would not be an internal force. It could though be an exertion of a force on a surface, both internal and external.
R9. Based on radiometric properties, the “engine or vehicle” could have:
A. the vehicle enclosure serves as a driveshaft B. interior moving parts are on the molecular level by eliminating F2 plate rotation C. the interior force is now being applied to overcome the vehicle inertia and the external air resistance D. the vehicle could be propelled over a frictionless surface (though likely skidding) E. the vehicle will run cooler when in motion F. de-energized molecules become a dead weight, yet are still accelerated to a new base vehicle velocity G. the de-energized molecules are trapped within to be reused.
R10. It is unknown if this hypothetical efficiency could lead to simplified, non polluting radiometric engines. It may not come close or to be practical to match the power of say the 4000 RPM of a conventional engine.
R11. After confirmation, the radiometric force could be quantified.
R12. My impression is every “part” and aspect of the physics of a radiometer is known to science. What is unknown is: how could this radiometric physics be applied?
R13. These radiometric properties could lend support that black hole in-falling matter could provide accelerative thrust inside a black hole.
As an accelerative prediction, the thrust could be more pronounced in younger, near primordial galaxies with less black hole mass gravitation.
R14. Upon confirmation, these radiometric property characteristics could be matching the energy in black holes as the “overlooked”, missing energy in driving the cosmological expansion of the universe.
Reference & Notes
(1) https://www.google.com/patents/US20060000215A1 Inventors: Stanley Kremen and Marco Scandurra Jan 5, 2005. The status is as: “abandoned”. I surmise abandonment could be due to the design complexity. The counter intuitive nature may also have kept these properties from being studied.
(2) Would oscillating energy increase or decrease the transfer of momentum?
(3) An F2 plate itself may serve as sufficient insulation between the two sides. If using focused light, a silvered side may also not be required as the ambient light in most labs could be less than a focused light.
(4) In extended external environments the interior transfer of molecular momentum would need to be insulated from the external environment.
(5) Mirrored Au surfaces, as needed, could be used to direct radiant energy both away and onto nanopore surfaces.
(6) The slip effects in a radiometer are in close proximity to the surfaces. The radiometric physics, as above, would also be in close proximity to nanopore surfaces.
I am making a deduction that it is likely such physics is taking place on the interface between energy and micro and macro galactic momentum.
This interface could be expressed by increasing changing galactic momentum even as gravitation is measure by instruments which are also ultimately a product of increasing galactic momentum (and of the observer).
(7) My insights are to be freely used. I retain copyrights. Editing may continue. November 30, 2020. L. Thompson