A Novice’s Study of the Universe as an Accelerative Process

LT

Introduction

The key to this study is to include the Milky Way Galaxy and the local galaxies as also receding away from the primordial singularity.

This accelerative process outline begins with energy.

Energy

The resulting accelerative expansion of the universe would be secondary to the energy being inputted. That portion of the redshift due to the expansion itself would be secondary to the cause of the expansion. Energy would then be the primary driver of the near primordial and the succeeding evolving galaxies until gravitational forces later predominate.

The Microwave Background Radiation

The microwave background radiation would be expanding with accelerative expansion. From a completed frame of reference an observer then measures the microwave background radiation as the cosmic background radiation.  

An observer’s measure from a completed frame of reference would be in-step with the underlying cosmological expansion from the white hole singularity.

The Forming Parameters

In tracing back to the primordial universe, time would become less complete.  The reduction becomes as the timelessness of the primordial singularity.

In the accelerative process, the timeless release of primordial plasma could be accounting in the universe for the unimaginable amounts of energy and mass.

Closely spaced primordial spiral galaxies form from primordial plasma and then reform. As mass builds from primordial energy; gravitational strengths become stronger. Time and space become fuller.

The spiral shaped, near primordial galaxies could be indicating that an accelerative force could be taking shape within such spiral galaxies.

Entropy would not function without the formation of mass, space, and time. Entropy, in an oxymoron, would also be “a product” of accelerative process. Yet entropy, in the breakdown of structure in reforming energy and mass, could keep the universe from becoming “frozen” – even as matter increases in structure.

Radioactive atoms form. An observer then measures radioactive decay as the same as every other observer.

As a continuing accelerative process, older regions would have increased time dilation and an increased base of heavier elements. It might be possible for a class of atomic elements to be present which would not be in the local galaxies.

The spectrographs of older galactic regions could be searched for such elements.

Cosmological Redshifting

One could infer the accelerative recession of the local galaxies could also be stretching light and primordial energy waves from other regions.

Yet the primordial singularity itself would have little or no red shifting due to the subsequent accelerative recession of the maturing galaxies.

If one would imagine being at the primordial singularity, the receding galaxies would all be redshifted from the primordial singularity.

In accelerative process the primordial singularity becomes the accelerative zero reference for the commencement of the succeeding evolutionary stages of the galaxies.

The redshift of distant galaxies could be extreme.  Yet distant galaxies could also have a large, though not extreme, redshift from accelerative expansion from the primordial singularity.

As an accelerative possibility: deep space exploration of “the far side” of the universe may show similar evolutionary stages as the local galactic region.

However, the full evolutionary range would likely not be visible. The energy waves of later evolutionary stages would not have time to reach earth (and may also have been subject to extinguishment singularities).

Note: in the distant reaches of the universe it may be that some objects could be juxtaposed with younger objects. The “signature” of the atomic composition of such distant objects could help to determine evolutionary sequences.

Universal Gravitation

In accordance with gravitational attraction; distant, massive gravitational fields would have little or no “pull” on primordial galaxies. (2)

Gravitational accelerative forces, as an accelerative product of increasing inertia, mass, and acceleration, could then predominate in mature galactic regions.

Galactic Acceleration

The accelerative expansion of galaxies could follow Einstein’s graph line for bodies under acceleration. This could be from low, macro mass primordial spiral galactic beginnings, then to rapid accent, and then with increasing inertia and gravitational buildup to a slowing, a leveling off.

This leveling off could be in mature regions then followed by an accelerative decent into extinguishment singularities.

The Milky Way Galaxy would likely be in a leveling off region of “galactic apogees” where the parameters of the universe would be more balanced.

To an observer this changing rate of acceleration could appear as “a straight line” acceleration from the primordial beginning to an extinguishment ending.

Note: “putting in” the accelerative process could allow one to “tease out” the possibility that the evolution of galaxies may not in fact be “straight line”.  A cosmological constant may be required to account for past changes in the rate of galactic accelerations.

Extinguishment and Renewal

A leveling in the rate of galactic acceleration could be occurring in mature regions with strong gravitational fields. This could then be followed by an increasing “downward” acceleration with countless galaxies and galactic black holes falling into extinguishment singularities (as terminal black holes). Extinguishment would be complete with no visibility, except for galaxies approaching the in-falling boundary.  (See Ref. 1)

In support of extinguishment singularities, in Oblers’ paradox the night sky retain darkness as attempting to escape energy would be unable to surmount an extinguishment horizon. In effect due to the most extreme conditions possible, there would be no outside formed universe in which to escape.

Gravitational forces would also collapse as gravitational forces could no longer be “supported” by accelerative process (and by the other “un-forming” parameters).

A collapsing extinguishment singularity, when no longer “fed” by galaxies and dark matter within reach, could continue collapsing of its own accord, leaving behind voids in the universe.”

However; energy and mass (as a “tied up” form of energy) could be “recollected” in extinguishment singularities and then “resourced” in primordial white hole plasma. Thus satisfying that energy can neither be created nor destroyed.

In the First Law of Thermodynamics the release of primordial white hole energy from prior extinguishments could then have its maximum potential, its highest quality, for renewing the parameters of the universe.

Note: an implication here is that extinguishment singularities could be drawing in galaxies from former “universes” with the same accelerative process.

A Small Problem

In an accelerative frame of reference the matter in galaxies could originally have had a primordial “jump”, as instantaneous, as without time, to the subatomic plasma energy of the white hole singularity. Hence in the encompassing accelerative process, the matter in all galaxies could originally be “viewed” as having an “instantaneous” beginning – as without time.

Although this would seem to solve the problem – that subatomic matter in primordial plasma could have had an instantaneous beginning, it cannot solve the entire universe as having an instantaneous beginning.

Yet how human type life evolves in the universe and how such life “measures the universe” would set a completion of the universe.  An observer then gives a completion to the universe which would not otherwise be possible.

Describing the universe as “a onetime acceleration” could then be a confirmation of the completion of one’s own frame of reference.

The one time acceleration description would then also be a “completion property” of the underlying accelerative process.

Hence; in accelerative process an observer’s measurements and the age of the universe are left “as is”, without change.

“The change” would be in recognizing the underlying accelerative and evolutionary processes taking place in the universe.

Two Descriptions

In the accelerative expansion of matter could be two descriptions. The first would be the completion description of Newton’s physics and Einstein’s highly accurate predictions (to that point in time and space).

In completion descriptions, an observer’s measure of “the age” of the universe, and of the microwave background radiation, would be completion measures, as also to that point in time and space, of the underlying accelerative process.

The second description would be the underlying accelerative process of change and motion in forming and shaping the parameters of the universe. The accelerative description would then “support” an observer’s completion descriptions and measurements.

Completion descriptions though could not account for “changes due to the accelerative process underlying the evolution of galaxies. The formation of our region of the universe could also have had a more rapidly forming past.

A cosmological constant may then be necessary in completion descriptions – with an understanding the underlying accelerative description could help fill this accelerative gap. 

The Accelerative Zero

When including the accelerative recession of local galaxies in lengthening primordial energy waves (in addition to the other causes of red shift), the universe could have from the white hole primordial singularity an accelerative reference zero of low to no initial primordial galaxy recessions.

In accelerative process The Principle of Equivalence, at rest in a gravitational field, could then be the same case as at rest in an accelerated frame of reference.

Although my mathematics is to balance my checkbook I ask mathematicians: could the accelerative reference zero have an application to mathematics?

Non Reducible Information

The likelihood of non reducible information is inferred from the nature of accelerative process and from the “no information lost paradox”. (3)

As the formed parameters would be accelerative products, information could be non reducible. Non reducible information could be a timeless “statelessness”, underlying time and space, matter and gravitation, and the finiteness of motion.

Non reducible information could be as the “timeless essence” of the universe. Paradoxically; such “essence” in having transcendence would not be of the physical, yet “in” the physical.  

References & Notes

 (1) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Attractor .   Could the “great attractor” be an extinguishment singularity with no visibility except countless galaxies falling, accelerating, toward an unknown “object”?

Note: the timelessness of the primordial singularity may result in some distant objects being juxtaposed in age and in evolution.

(2) https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/04/180425131848.htm 

Sourced: Simons Foundation, April 25, 2018, referencing closely spaced, primordial appearing galaxies with weak appearing gravitational forces.

(3) https://www.space.com/24899-black-holes-stars-information-paradox-html  Katia Moskvitch, Science & Astronomy, March 5, 2014.

Notes & Sources

(4) “Hubble Legacy” J. Bell with forward by astronaut J. Gunsfeld, Sterling Publishing Co. New York, NY, 2020. I am influenced by these dynamic Hubble photographs.

 (5) Extinguishment singularities could represent prior “universes” with the same accelerative process.

(6) In cosmological renewal, former extinguishments may be hinted at in the cooler spots of the microwave background radiation.

(7) Newtonian physics and Einstein’s physics would be completion measurements and predictions “out of” the underlying incompletion of accelerative process – as always a process “reaching toward” completion.

(8) As a science fiction speculative question: might it be possible “to go under” the formed parameters to put a quantum signal in “statelessness”?

With minimal or no time and space, a quantum signal could then reach and be returned “quickly” from distant civilizations.

Without formed time and space there would also be no violation of the fundamental velocity of such a quantum signal. (In this science fiction, the “non properties” of quantum computing could also be intriguing.)

Note: in the bending back upon itself, it seems that what may not be possible on one level of accelerative process could be possible on another level.

(9) I experience the reluctance of physicists to include the unmeasurable and the inferred (as in my studies).

Let’s just say there is “another side” to physics which uses the strengths inherit in physics and astronomy which makes writing this accelerative outline possible.

Other Notes

(10) In complex life, as human life, genetic variety in the gene pool would increase adaptability to the implied underlying changing geologic and changing environments.

A population which would be in balance with the environment could also have an added strength to adapt to changes and maybe also more time to better adjust to such changes.

 (11) As a “thought exercise” I recognize entropy as necessary to life processes. I find doing so aids in centering my studies.  (This “thought exercise” was for me originally a “takeoff” from Focusing as developed by the pioneering work of Eugene Gendlin.)

(12) I noted that entropy is necessary for keeping the evolutionary stages of the universe from becoming “frozen” even as matter builds to higher levels of structure.

Yet, as an outgrowth of my studies: in a fuller understanding of the necessary function of entropy, might there be ways found to mitigate excessive entropic reduction in the human condition?  lanceatpon.net May 10, 2021 LT

I now turn to to what I call radiometric physics.

A Hypothetical Radiometric Engine

LT

As per the prior work of MIT developers, and others, I am proposing to simplify the “encapsulated radiometric engine”. This proposal would likewise be self contained and release no exhaust gases.

R1. Credited are William Crookes’ 1870’s observations and his design of the radiometer. (1)

R2. “The Encapsulated Radiometric Engine”, US20060000215A1 (2) substantially increases a radiometric force, over the minute force in a radiometer, to being demonstrable in a full or greater atmospheric pressure.

In a full atmosphere the “encapsulated engine” would not need to be fully enclosed (except to keep out dust and moisture). “The engine” I am proposing could then use the more general name: “the radiometric engine”.

R3. Although the “encapsulated radiometric engine” may have been discarded, I propose looking at “the engine” from another direction by directly applying the internal force/power.

a. Reasons why the “encapsulated engine” may have been discarded may be: the interior design may be too complex. The interior medium drag friction of the rotating paddles of the Fig. 2 plates could quickly have “the engine” working against itself. (the proposed “radiometric engine” would avoid this issue.)

b. The radiometric force in a radiometer is counter intuitive.  This may have blocked from others “seeing” the possibility of simplifying “the encapsulated engine”.

c. The force/power may not have been as large as implied in the patent summary. (I leave this open as to later quantifying the force/power.)

R4. There would be no violation of the equal and opposite reactions of Newton’s physics as the molecular momentum is directly transferred. The radiometric demonstration uses this direct momentum transfer. (Play a game of pool and observe the transfers of momentum.)

R5. The comparatively costs would be relatively small. With F2 plates in hand confirmation demonstrations could be undertaken at various academic institutions.

R6. In diagramming “The Encapsulated Radiometric Engine”, US20060000215A1, a Fig.2 nanopore plate is mounted inside the “encapsulated engine” as Fig. 6.

R7. The “Proposed Radiometric Engine”

a. Visualize the “encapsulated engine” in Fig. 6.  Next remove one or both ends so that the “capsule” is open to the atmosphere.

b. Next visualize that when the nanopore plate would instead be attached permanently and perpendicular to the long sides of the enclosure that the force would continue to be applied. The nanopores would continue to give direction to the force/power being generated.

c. The nanopore plate(s) would still be free to move, now as an integral component in “the vehicle”.

The transfer of molecular momentum to the F2 nanopore plate would remain, as before, as the same physics. The “vehicle” would be accelerated by the same force.

d. Next visualize on reclosing the ends, the capsule would still remain free to move. The force/power would still be the same. However, as also per the developer’s “encapsulated radiometric engine”, the reclosed, simplified “radiometric engine” would likewise release no exhaust gases.

R8. Some Characteristics of “The Radiometric Engine”  

Based on the radiometric force/power being generated, this now simplified “radiometric engine” could have:

a. Interior moving parts are on the molecular level by eliminating the interior paddle F2 plate rotation of “the engine”. This would also eliminate interior drag friction.

The interior force/power generated is now being more fully directed to overcome the vehicle inertia and the external air resistance.

b. The velocity of the interior molecular medium could be high. Yet the external velocity, in comparison, could be low. This differential would also reduce the frictional drag of the external atmosphere. 

c. The vehicle would run cooler when in motion. (This is why the power of a conventional engine is reduced to idle when stopped.)

d. “The vehicle” enclosure now serves as the driveshaft, reducing weight.

e. “The vehicle” could be propelled over a frictionless surface (though likely skidding). Once set in motion, the motion would continue.

f. De-energized molecules become a dead weight, yet the de-energized molecules would be accelerated to a new base vehicle, engine velocity. The de-energized molecules could still be reused to be re-energized.

g. A radiometric force engine would likely not match the quick energy released in the 4000 RPM of a conventional engine.  However, my sense is these radiometric force characteristics could find uses such as perhaps similar to a “fourth or fifth gear” to maintain velocity.

R9.  Other Comments:

a. The power supplied to the embedded thermocouples can be varied. This would find “the sweet spot” where the propulsion being generated matches the power input – without excessively heating the nanopore plates. This could also reduce the need for cooling the F2 plates. (As indicated, the transfer of motion itself of “the vehicle/engine” helps to keep the plates from overheating.)

b. In an enclosed radiometric force engine install a pressure release vent to relieve excess pressure. For safety, turn off the energy source before braking “the vehicle”.  Also do not stand either in front or in the rear of the engine. (On cooling “the engine” might move in the opposite direction.)

c. The initial engine testing should be near room temperature and atmospheric pressure.

d. Excessive weight would result in overheating the engine – as also in conventional engines which would be geared too high for the weight of the vehicle.

R10. As the force is applied within a larger mass, “internal” is used as to the exterior of “the vehicle”.

Yet in this radiometric physics, it seems there would be little difference as to whether the surface of a larger macro mass would be on the inside or on the outside or within the interior surfaces of the nanopores of a larger mass.

In a narrow sense this would not be an internal force. It could though be an exertion of a force on a surface, both internal and external.

R11. I feel there would be plenty “to play around” here in these radiometric characteristics. There seems quite a bit of flexibility. As based on my workbench radiometer observations, it may even be that an F2 type plate upon cooling may briefly reverse the direction of propulsion.

R12. Once fully enclosed; different mediums and different pressures and temperatures could be tested. An enclosed “radiometric engine” would be its own testing laboratory.

R13. I surmise every aspect of a radiometer is known to science as per the work of Crookes, Reynolds, Maxwell, Einstein, and others.

Yet what is unknown is: how could this radiometric physics be used?

An Overlooked Radiometric Force

R14. A radiometric type force acting over molecular and atomic surfaces could move a large mass. In the primordial spiral (radiometric) galaxies such an accelerative force acting over and within the forming spiral galaxies could be a precursor to gravitational forces.

(Please note: my accelerative process paper “has the primordial singularity as the commencement of the building up of the parameters of the universe. This evolutionary process then shows that an opposite perspective of the primordial universe could be possible in which primordial gravitational forces would be little formed.)

R15. Radiometric Characteristics and Black Holes

a. Concurrent with accelerative processes, these radiometric properties could lend support that black hole in-falling matter (itself the result of prior accelerative processes) could still continue to provide an accelerative thrust inside a galactic black hole.

b. The similarity with “the radiometric engine” would be that accelerative forces could be contained within and still provide a directional thrust.

Two References

(1) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crookes_radiometer

 (2)  https://www.google.com/patents/US20060000215A1  Inventors: Stanley Kremen and Marco Scandurra Jan 5, 2005. The status is: “abandoned”.

Notes

(a) Would oscillating energy increase or decrease the transfer of momentum?

(b)  Would some larger interspaced openings in the nanopore plates enhance the recirculation of the de-energized molecules? 

 (c) Mirrored Au surfaces, as needed, could direct radiant energy both away and onto nanopore surfaces.

(d) I recall that momentum is momentum regardless of direction. My sense is that “both ends” of a radiometric force and the resulting momentum are being used in the near primordial, spiral galaxies.  (A hint of this could also be in the “radiometric engine”.)

(e) My accelerative insights are given to the public commonwealth to be freely used. Copyrights are retained. Limited paper copies may be made. May 10, 2021, L. Thompson (lanceatpon.net)