This Accelerative Universe

A Novice’s Perspective

Energy

Energy is the driver of the primordial galaxies in the resulting expansion of the universe.

The Microwave Background Radiation

The microwave background expands from the primordial singularity and is then measured as as the cosmic background radiation (CMB).  

The Forming Parameters

In tracing back to the primordial universe, time would become less complete.  The reduction becomes as the timelessness of the primordial singularity.

The timeless release of primordial plasma could be accounting for the innumerable galaxies in the universe.

Mass builds from primordial plasma, gravitational strengths increase, time and space become fuller. Spiral galaxies form.

Entropy could not function without the formation of mass, space, time, and structure. Entropy would also be as “a product” of the accelerative expansion of the universe.

Older regions could have increased time dilation and heavier elements. It might be possible for another class of atomic elements. The spectrographs of older regions could be searched for such elements.

Redshifting

Redshift, as viewed on earth, from galaxies in the distant universe could include both the stretching of energy waves from the primordial as well as the stretching of the primordial energy waves by the local Milky Way Galaxy. In this case the redshifting, due to accelerative recession, would be additive.

For distant galaxies more to the side” of cosmological expansion, the expansion itself would also add to redshifting.

Universal Gravitation

In accordance with gravitational attraction; distant, massive gravitational fields would have little or no “pull” on primordial galaxies. (1)

Gravitational forces, as a product of increasing inertia, mass, and acceleration (from a lower accelerative base) could predominate in mature regions.

A Fore Runner of Gravitational Forces?

A primordial radiometric force could be the fore runner of gravitational forces. Such a radiometric force would be incorporated within gravitational forces and would not separately be measurable in an observer’s local frame of reference.

Galactic Acceleration

The accelerative expansion of galaxies could follow the graph line for bodies under acceleration. This could be from low mass galactic beginnings, then to rapid accent, and then with increasing inertia and gravitational buildup to a slowing, a leveling off, followed by an accelerative decent into extinguishment.

Extinguishment and Renewal

In extinguishment, galaxies and massive black holes would be falling into extinguishment singularities with no visibility, except innumerable galaxies approaching an extinguishment in-falling boundary.  (2)

In support of extinguishment, in Oblers’ paradox the night sky retain darkness. In extinguishment even “escaping” energy would be unable to surmount an inner extinguishment horizon.

The microwave background radiation would likewise, with surrounding space and time, be drawn inward. Dark energy would also be drawn inward with collapsing time and space.

Gravitational forces would collapse as gravitational forces could no longer be “supported” by accelerative process and by the other collapsing parameters.

With extinguishment, including gravitational forces, extinguishment singularities could be as “back to back” with the primordial white hole.

In extinguishment and renewal the ending stage of matter would be in balance with the primordial beginning.

Note: I am not so sure that energy as we know it would be recycled in extinguishment. It might be the singularity of the universe itself, as representing both extinguishment and renewal, that “nothingness” turns back upon itself to give the the primordial plasma.

(Note: this interpretation of the primordial does not take away from a timeless essence transcending what is, in effect, a physical universe.)

There is here in this accelerative universe presentation; a hint of support for the “one time acceleration model” as resulting from an intense gravitation.

Yet in the accelerative process description; this “gravitational release” would be from the breakdown, in extinguishment, of all gravitational forces.

As The First Law of Thermodynamics, the primordial singularity white hole plasma would have maximum potential, its highest quality, for rebuilding the parameters of the universe – including gravitational forces.

The Age of the Universe?

In accelerative process the matter in galaxies could originally have had a primordial “quantum jump”, as instantaneous, as without time, to the subatomic plasma of the white hole singularity.

This quantum jump of individual “packets” of energy, in the timelessness of the primordial singularity could always be taking place. Hence the matter in galaxies could originally have come from an instantaneous quantum beginning.

This would seem to solve the problem – that primordial plasma could have had an instantaneous beginning (in support of “a one time acceleration”).

Yet it cannot solve matter as having an instantaneous beginning at the “same instant”. In an accelerative process description the evolutionary stages of the universe could always be taking place.

Yet how an observer measures and describes the universe sets a completion of the universe which could not otherwise be obtainable. The “one time acceleration description” could then also be a “completion property” of the underlying accelerative process.

Hence; in an accelerative process description an observer’s measurements and an observer’s measure of the age of the universe are left “as is”, without change. 

“The change” would be in recognizing the dynamic and evolutionary processes taking place in the universe.

Completion Descriptions and the Accelerative Description

The completion descriptions of Newton’s physics and Einstein’s highly accurate predictions would be to that point in time and space of the underlying accelerative process.

An observer’s measure of “the age” of the universe and of the microwave background radiation would also be completion measures process.

Completion descriptions though could not account for past changes in the rate of change of accelerative processes. The formation of the local region of the universe could have had both a slower and a more rapidly forming past.

A cosmological constant may be necessary in completion descriptions – with an understanding the underlying accelerative description could help fill the accelerative gap of completion descriptions. 

The Accelerative Zero

When including the accelerative recession of local galaxies in lengthening primordial energy waves (in addition to the other causes of red shift), the universe could have from the white hole singularity an accelerative reference zero of low or no initial primordial galaxy recessions.

The accelerative zero would underlie an observer’s mathematical zero.

Non Reducible Information

The likelihood of non reducible information is inferred from the nature of accelerative process and from the “no information lost paradox”. (3)

As the formed parameters would be accelerative products, information itself could be non reducible. Non reducible information could be timeless “statelessness”, underlying time and space, matter and gravitation, and the finiteness of motion.

“Statelessness” in transcending the physical parameters would, seemingly paradoxically, be in the physical and yet not of the physical.

I cannot help but note here that a quantum signal in “statelessness” could, without time and space, “timelessly travel” the length and back of the physical universe.

Such a possibility though is left to science fiction and/or to a “higher power”.

References

(1) https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/04/180425131848.htm 

Source is Simons Foundation, April 25, 2018, referencing closely spaced, primordial appearing galaxies with weak appearing gravitational fields.

The spiral galactic shape could also be indicating an accelerative force which would include the incipient galactic black holes. 

Could this radiometric spiral shape be a clue to missing dark energy?

 (2) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Attractor .   Could the “great attractor” be an extinguishment singularity with no visibility except countless galaxies falling, accelerating, toward an unknown “object”?

(3) https://www.space.com/24899-black-holes-stars-information-paradox-html  Katia Moskvitch, Science & Astronomy, March 5, 2014.

Notes & Other Sources

(4) “Hubble Legacy” J. Bell with forward by astronaut J. Gunsfeld, Sterling Publishing Co. New York, NY, 2020. I am influenced by the Hubble photographs.

(5) Newtonian physics and Einstein’s physics would be completion measurements and predictions “out of” the underlying incompletion of accelerative process – as always a process “reaching toward” completion.

(6) The radiometric properties in the following paper may apply to the primordial spiral shaped galaxies.

A Simplified Radiometric Engine

A Redesign

 R1. “The Encapsulated Radiometric Engine” US20060000215A1 (1) by using nanopore plates (Fig.6) substantially increases a radiometric force to being demonstrable in a full or greater atmosphere.

R2. As per the patent summery “The encapsulated radiometric engine” is now “abandoned” (though may have been made obsolete by a succeeding “engine”).

My redesigned “engine” could increase the efficiency of “the engine” by directly applying the force/power to the “the engine”.

R3.  In “The Encapsulated Radiometric Engine” the nanopore plates and thermocouples are mounted in the rotating paddles of Fig. 6.

a. In Fig. 6 of “the encapsulated radiometric engine”, fix the rotating shaft at both ends to the vessel/engine itself.  The shaft is no longer free to rotate. The shaft is now a fixed rod in the vessel /engine enclosure.

b. Reorient and attach the nanopore F6 plates perpendicular to the fixed in place rod.  The radiometric force of the attached plates is now being directed along the rod to the vessel, engine enclosure.

c. Yet the nanopore plates are free to move as an integral component of “the vehicle” – when the entire vehicle/engine is also free to move. 

R4. Other Notes

a. “The radiometric engine/vessel” could be mounted on wheels or on rails. A battery could be within “the engine” to supply energy to the thermocouples.

b. The transfer of molecular momentum to the F6 nanopore plates would remain as the same radiometric force/power.

c. Eliminating the interior F6 plate rotation would eliminate interior drag friction on an F6 plate. The interior force/power is now fully directed to overcome the vehicle inertia and external air resistance.

d. De-energized molecules become a dead weight; yet the de-energized molecules would still be accelerated to a new base vehicle velocity. The de-energized molecules could then be re-energized at a higher “vehicle” velocity.

e. A series of radiometric plates with thermocouples, on a spacing of say 1 cm could have a large surface area in relation to the size of “a vehicle”.

R5. Quantifying the Radiometric Force/Power

A radiometric force engine may not match the power of a conventional engine. Yet it seems to me the force/power could be sufficient for the equivalent of a fourth or fifth gear.

I have not the means or the expertise to quantify the force/power. Those with expertise would quantify the power and also at higher internal pressures.

R6. Other Comments

a. The power supplied to the thermocouples could be varied. This would find “the sweet spot” where the propulsion matches the power input – without excessively heating the nanopore plates. This could also reduce the need for cooling the F6 plates.

b. In an enclosed radiometric force engine install a pressure release vent to relieve excess pressure. For safety, turn off the energy source before braking “the vehicle”.  Also do not stand either in front or in the rear of the engine. (On cooling “the engine” might reverse.)

c. The initial testing is to be near room temperature and atmospheric pressure.

d. Excessive weight/inertia could result in overheating – as also in conventional engines geared too high.

R7. In this radiometric physics, it seems there would be little difference in transferring molecular momentum as to whether the surface of a larger macro mass would be on the inside or on the outside or within the interior surfaces.

In a narrow sense this would not be an internal force. It could though be an exertion of a force on a surface, both internal and external.

R8. As in a radiometer, this “radiometric engine” would leave no external exhaust.

Reference & Notes

 (1)  https://www.google.com/patents/US20060000215A1  Inventors: Stanley Kremen and Marco Scandurra Jan 5, 2005.

(2) Would oscillating energy increase or decrease the transfer of momentum?

 (3) Mirrored gold plated surfaces could direct radiant energy either away or onto nanopore plate surfaces. 

(4) I apologize for wordiness, which I am reducing, as I work on the core aspects of a broad process.

This simplified radiometric engine is in the public domain. I retain copyrights. July 30, 2021 LT