A Study of Accelerative Process

&

A Demonstration of Radiometric Properties

(Note: I am editing to add a fuller introduction, to add a paragraph on quantum collapse, and editing for a tighter radiometric properties paper. There are no changes to the basic papers.)

This first paper outlines the universe as an accelerative process.

The second paper is a demonstration of radiometric properties.

This accelerative study “begins” with extinguishment singularities as precursor to the primordial singularity.

Extinguishment Singularities

In extinguishment an irreversible collapse would take place as countless galaxies and black holes fall inward. (1) Time and space and motion collapse.

Numerous galaxies with surrounding energy and space/time would not remain in the formed universe.

Attempting to escape energy would also be unable to surmount the inner extinguishment horizon. The night sky, in Oblers’ paradox, retains darkness.

(See also “Extinguishment and Renewal”.)

Energy as the Primary Driver

In the example of the expanding balloon, the resulting accelerative expansion of the balloon would be secondary to the energy being inputted.

Energy would be the primary driver of the primordial, evolving galaxies in the accelerative expansion of the universe.

The Microwave Background Radiation

The microwave background radiation would be expanding with accelerative expansion. From a completed frame of reference an observer then measures the microwave background radiation as the cosmic background radiation. The observer’s measure is from a completed frame of reference which has likewise undergone 14 billion years of cosmological expansion.

The Forming Parameters

In tracing back to the primordial universe, time would become less complete.  The reduction becomes as the timelessness of the primordial singularity.

In this accelerative interpretation, the timeless release of primordial plasma could be accounting for the unimageable amounts of energy and mass in the universe.

Closely spaced primordial galaxies form from primordial plasma and reform. As mass builds from primordial energy, gravitational strengths become stronger. Time and space become fuller.

Radioactive atoms form. An observer then measures radioactive decay as the same as every other observer.

Entropy would not function without the formation of mass, space, and time. Entropy, in an oxymoron, would also be “a product” of accelerative process.

Yet entropy, in the breakdown of structure in reforming energy and mass, could keep the universe from becoming “frozen” – even as matter increases in complexity.

An Accelerative Possibility?

As a continuing accelerative process, older regions would have increased time dilation and an increased, formed base of heavier elements. It might then be possible for a class of atomic elements to be present which would not be in the local galaxies.

Spectrographs of older galactic regions could be searched for such elements.

Cosmological Redshifting

One could infer the accelerative recession of the local galaxies could also be stretching light and primordial energy waves from other regions.

Yet the primordial singularity itself would have little or no red shifting due to the subsequent accelerative recession of maturing galaxies.

If one would imagine being at the primordial singularity, the receding galaxies would all be redshifted.

“Far Side” Evolution?

“Most distant known galaxy surprises astronomers with heavy elements, gamma ray burst”. (2)

The redshift of “the most distant galaxy” could be among the most extreme. Yet this distant galaxy could also have a large, though not extreme, redshift from its own accelerative expansion from the primordial singularity.

As an accelerative possibility: deep space exploration of the far reaches of the universe may then show similar evolutionary stages as the local galactic region.

However, the full evolutionary range would likely not be visible. The energy waves of later evolutionary stages would not have time to reach earth (and may also have already been subject to extinguishment singularities).

Universal Gravitation

In accordance with gravitational attraction; distant, massive gravitational fields would have little or no “pull” on primordial galaxies. (3)

Gravitational accelerative forces, as an accelerative product of increasing inertia, mass, and increasing acceleration, could then predominate in mature galactic regions.

Galactic Acceleration

The accelerative expansion of galaxies could, in its outward expression, follow Einstein’s graph line for bodies under acceleration. This could be from low, macro mass primordial spiral galactic beginnings, then to rapid accent, and with increasing inertia and gravitational buildup to a slowing, a leveling off.

This leveling off could be a mature region then followed by an accelerative decent into extinguishment singularities.

The Milky Way Galaxy would likely be in this leveling off region of “galactic apogees” where the parameters of the universe would be more balanced.

To an observer this changing rate of acceleration could appear as “a straight line” acceleration from the primordial beginning to an extinguishment ending.

Note: a cosmological constant may also be required to account for past changes in the rate of galactic accelerations, changes which could not be measured.

The First and Second Law of Thermodynamics

The release of white hole energy from “back to back” extinguishment singularities (without formed space and time) could be offsetting extinguishment reductions.

The total quantity of energy in the universe could be as a closed system.

The First Law: the total energy in a closed system is constant.

The Second Law: the quality of energy irreversibly degrades. (4)

In the First Law, primordial energy could have its maximum potential, its highest quality, for building the parameters of the universe.

In the Second Law, extinguishment could be the Second Law’s ultimate degrading.

Both Laws would function within the non changeability of the accelerative process in forming the parameters of the universe.

Note: A. Einstein in his earlier work felt the universe was static. The accelerative process, as a process, would be unchangeable in giving form to the universe.

Extinguishment and Renewal

In an accelerative perspective a leveling in the rate of galactic acceleration could be occurring in older regions with strong gravitational fields. This could then be followed by an increasing “downward” acceleration with countless galaxies and galactic black holes falling into extinguishment singularities (as terminal black holes). Extinguishment would be complete with no visibility, except galaxies approaching an in-falling boundary.  (See Ref. 1)

The extinguishment of time and space and temperature (as a product of atomic motion) would collapse in extinguishment.

Gravitational forces would also collapse as gravitational forces could no longer be “supported” by accelerative process and by the other “un-forming” parameters.

If “outside” parameters such as space/time and mass (including black matter) would no longer be available, such an extinguishment singularity could continue collapsing of its own accord, leaving voids in the formed universe.

However; energy could be “recollected” in extinguishment singularities and then “resourced” in primordial plasma as subatomic particles. Thus satisfying that energy can neither be created nor destroyed.

Could Gravitational Forces Be Extinguished?

In accelerative process, although this question would not come up in an observer’s frame of reference, the accelerative answer would be “Yes and No”.

In accelerative process gravitation, as a product of acceleration, could with the other formed parameters, be extinguished. The primordial singularity as the “backside” of extinguishment could then timelessly be giving form to primordial plasmas in a timeless renewal of the universe.

Gravitational forces, with the other supporting parameters, would likewise be finite. However due to the timelessness of the primordial singularity gravitational forces could never be extinguished in the universe itself (or one would not have the universe).

Two Descriptions

In the accelerative expansion of matter could be two descriptions. The first would be the completion description of Newton’s physics and Einstein’s highly accurate predictions (to that point in time and space).

In the completion description, an observer’s measure of “the age” of the universe (and of the microwave background radiation) would be a completion measure, also to that point in time and space, of the underlying accelerative process.

The second description would be the underlying accelerative process in forming and shaping the parameters of the universe. The accelerative description would then literally support an observer’s measurements (and the base for life).

Completion descriptions though could not account for “changes due to the accelerative process underlying the evolution of galaxies. The formation of our region of the universe could have also had a more rapidly forming past.

A cosmological constant could then be necessary – with an understanding an accelerative description could help fill this formational accelerative gap.

The Accelerative Zero

When including the accelerative recession of local galaxies in lengthening primordial energy waves (in addition to other causes of red shift), the universe could have from the white hole primordial singularity an accelerative reference zero of low to no initial primordial galaxy recessions.

In accelerative process the Principle of Equivalence, at rest in a gravitational field, could be the same case as at rest in an accelerated frame of reference.

One could also ask: could the primordial, accelerative reference zero also have an application to mathematics?

Non Reducible Information

The likelihood of non reducible information is inferred from the nature of accelerative process and from the “no information lost paradox”. (5)

As the formed parameters would be accelerative products, information could be non reducible. Non reducible information could be a timeless “statelessness”, underlying time and space, matter and gravitation, and the finiteness of motion.

References & Notes

(1) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Attractor

Could the “great attractor” be an extinguishment singularity with no visibility except countless galaxies falling, accelerating, toward an unknown “object”?

(2) https://astronomynow.com/2020/12/22/most-distant-known-galaxy-surprises-astronomers-with-heavy-elements-gamma-ray-burst/

The timelessness of the primordial singularity may result in some distant objects being juxtaposed in age and in evolution.

(3) https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/04/180425131848.htm 

Sourced: Simons Foundation, April 25, 2018, referencing closely spaced,
primordial appearing galaxies with weak appearing gravitational forces.

(4)  http://pespmc1.vub.ac.be/ENTRTHER.html “Entropy and the Laws of Thermodynamics”, Principia Cybernetica Web,  J. de Rosnay, July 3, 1998.

This reference is used for its basic presentation. (It is not easy to find basic explanations in the modern complexities of science.)

(5) https://www.space.com/24899-black-holes-stars-information-paradox-html  Katia Moskvitch, Science & Astronomy, March 5, 2014.

Other Notes & Sources

(6) “Hubble Legacy” J. Bell with forward by astronaut J. Gunsfeld, Sterling Publishing Co. New York, NY, 2020.

I am influenced by these dynamic Hubble photographs. What is the process which could “put in place” this dynamism and then “put in place” the highly accurate predictions of Einstein’s and Newton’s physics?

(7) Extinguishment singularities could represent countless prior “galactic universes with countless galaxies” with the same accelerative process.

(8) In cosmological renewal, former extinguishments may be hinted at in the cooler spots of the microwave background radiation.

(9) Newtonian physics and Einstein’s physics would be completion measurements and predictions “out of” the underlying incompletion of accelerative process – as always a process “reaching toward” completion.

(10) As a science fiction speculative question: might it be possible “to go under” the formed parameters to put a quantum signal in “statelessness”?

With minimal or no time and space, a quantum signal could then reach and be returned “quickly” from distant civilizations.

Without formed time and space there would also be no violation of the fundamental velocity of such a quantum signal.

The “non properties” of quantum computing are intriguing here in perhaps being “under” the physical.

Perhaps for an other time to explore, light and energy reaching earth would represent “fossil light”. Yet each galaxy would also have its present “now” in its time and space. Might the universe then have an universal “now” for all existing galaxies, suns, and planets?

(11) From my paper of September 9, 2014 (and also of March 29, 1994).

 “The counts are so high…. we see about 25,000 of these blue galaxies in a spot of sky as big as the full moon. …. recession stretches out the wavelengths of distant objects in a red shift effect. ….Powerful waves of ultraviolet light, normally invisible, have been shifted into the blue part of the spectrum….”

(1) Astronomers Studying Fuzzy Blue Clues to Evolution of Universe, Charles Petit, San Francisco Chronicle, June 23, 1989, quoting astronomers Richard Kron and David Koo, et al.”

In the above, our accelerative recession could be causing the stretching of the energy waves of these primordial appearing galaxies.

(12) In complex life, as human type life, genetic variety in the gene pool would increase adaptability to the implied underlying changing geologic and changing environments.

(13) The February 2021 Scientific American, “Cosmic Conundrum” by Clara Moskowitz, has some current thoughts on cosmology.

In reference to this article “vacuum energy” would not be the prime mover. In accelerative process it would first be primordial energy, then gravitational buildup, and then followed be an accelerative falling into terminal singularities.

(14) I have focused my studies on what I call “the accelerative thread”. Yet the perspective which could emerge in a study of accelerative process could be as broad as the universe.

The demonstration of the following properties would give closure to the above outline of the accelerative process.

A Demonstration of Radiometric Properties

L. Thompson

Note to Reviewer

Please consider the following properties as within the broader context of accelerative processes. Please also set aside “not possible” until the demonstration would be the determination of what may or may not be possible.

R1. In my workbench vacuum observations, the radiometer force is in close proximity to the vane surfaces and to the vane edges.

The radiometer force is being applied to overcome the inertia of four vanes and the harness.

R2. Credited is William Crookes’ 1870’s observations, and his subsequent design of the radiometer. (1)

R3. “The Encapsulated Radiometric Engine”, US20060000215A1 (2) substantially increases a radiometric force, over the minute force in a radiometer to now being demonstrable in a full or greater atmospheric pressure.

a. I do not have a technical background to evaluate the magnitude of the force indicated by the developers. I am though making the assumption that this radiometric force, using nanopores, would be substantial over that expressed within a radiometer.

b. Perhaps due to the complexity of extracting the interior propulsion to the external propellers, “the encapsulated radiometric engine” is now abandoned.

I realize it does not “so look good” when this “engine” is abandoned. Yet please bear with me. I propose looking at “this engine” from another direction by directly applying the internal force/power to “the vehicle” itself.

There is no violation of the equal and opposite reactions of Newton’s physics as the molecular momentum is being directly transferred. The demonstration is to show this direct transfer. (This momentum transfer well established in physics. Also just play a game of pool and observe the transfer of momentum).

c. I note the interior medium drag friction of the rotating paddles of the F2 plates could quickly have “the engine” working against itself. (This is where drag reduction would be equal to the reduction in efficiency.)

R.4 In “The Encapsulated Radiometric Engine”, US20060000215A1, paragraphs [0006-8] is an F2 nanopore plate [0006, F2 Plate], mounted in the open air.

R5. One could visualize that when an F2 type plate would be attached within a “test vehicle” that the force would continue to be applied. The F2 plate would still be free to move, now as an integral component of “the vehicle”.

The transfer of molecular momentum to the F2 plate would remain, as before, as the same physics. The “vehicle” would be accelerated by the same force.

R6. A nanopore plate with similar specifications may need to be fabricated.

(Note: I previously made a request, without a reply, to MIT asking if an F2 plate might still be available.)

a. To reduce costs, an F2 plate could be fabricated without the embedded thermocouples.

Although embedded thermocouples could better direct energy on to the F2 plates, sufficient force/power may still be generated without thermocouples by using focused light sources. (The test is to confirm this.)

b. Once an F2 type plate would be in hand and with little further expense, the demonstration could also be under taken by students working as a class team.

(Note: other than “back of the napkin” calculations, the demonstration comes first. The detailed calculations would come after the demonstration.)

R7. Would some larger inter spaced openings facilitate re-circulation or would the F2 Plate nanopores be of a sufficient size for circulation of de-energized molecules back through the center of the nanopores?

(I am reminded here of the surface slip effects on the radiometer vane edges.)

R8. As a pretest, focus light on a suspended nanopore plate. A strong response (as more than convection currents) would proceed to the next step.

Also first dim the focused light and then increase the intensity to observe the response. Try not to exceed the combustible limit.

R9. a. A “test vehicle” for the support of say 4 F2 type plates could be an open, transparent cylinder, say 6 cm in diameter and 12 cm in length, mounted on wheels set upon a level to an up sloping surface. (The actual dimensions could vary.)

b. The F2 type plates are to be attached, fixed perpendicular to the sides. Two focused lights are to be on each side of “the vehicle”. The “test vehicle” should be relatively light weight.

c. Exterior and interior temperatures and pressures are to be near room temperature and atmospheric pressure.

d. If using embedded thermocouples, an energy supplying battery could be mounted inside “the vehicle” to also show the internalization of the force.

e. Apply focused light to the F2 plates of the open ended “vehicle”.

R10. With positive confirmation, next fully close “the test vehicle” by gluing the same or similar transparent material to the ends of “the vehicle”. 

Install a pressure release vent (or leave a small opening) to relieve excess pressure. For safety, turn off the energy source before braking “the vehicle”.

With focused lights on each side, confirm the movement of the “closed vehicle”.

R11. Enclosing the plates to input energy into the macro “vehicle” momentum will be apparent when the energy transfer is diagrammed to “the vehicle” macro momentum.

In this special case, this is the transfer of micro momentum to a larger mass when the inertia of a larger mass is not excessive and is free to move.

R12. As the force is applied within a larger mass, “internal” is used as to the exterior of “the vehicle”.

In this radiometric physics, it seems there would be little difference as to whether the surface of a larger macro mass would be on the inside or on the outside or within the interior surfaces of the nanopores of the larger mass.

Note: in a narrow sense this would not be an internal force. It could though be an exertion of a force on a surface, both internal and external.

R13. Based on radiometric properties, the “engine or vehicle” could have:

a. The vehicle enclosure serves as a driveshaft, thus reducing weight.

b. Interior moving parts are on the molecular level by eliminating the interior paddle F2 plate rotation of “the encapsulated engine”, reducing friction and weight.

c. The interior force being generated is now being applied to overcome the vehicle inertia and the external air resistance.

d. The velocity of the interior molecular medium could be high. Yet the external velocity, in comparison, could be low. This differential would reduce the frictional drag of the external air resistance.

e. “The vehicle” could be propelled over a frictionless surface (though likely skidding). Once set in motion, the motion would continue.

f. The vehicle would run cooler when in motion. (This is why the power of a conventional engine is reduced to idle when braked.)

g. De-energized molecules become a dead weight, yet the de-energized molecules would also be accelerated to a new base vehicle velocity.

h. The de-energized molecules are encapsulated to be reused. There would thus be no release of pollution particles or pollution gases.

R14. It is unknown if this hypothetical efficiency might lead to simplified, non polluting radiometric engines. It may not come close or to be practical to match the power of say the 4000 RPM of a conventional engine where the input of energy would be substantial in comparison to the size and weight of the engine.

a. I am using focused light to reduce cost of demonstrating these properties.

b. A research facility using embedded thermocouples could likely increase the force/power by using banks of F2 plates.

c. A bank or series of radiometric plates with embedded thermocouples, on a spacing of say 1 cm could, in a relatively small “engine space”, have a large surface area in relation to the size of “a vehicle”. If a normal atmosphere could be used “the engine” would not necessary need to be enclosed – maybe though to just keep out the dust.

Even so, it seems unlikely that a series of radiometric plates could match the energy released in the braking of chemical bonds in conventional engines.

d. After a positive demonstration, a quantification of the radiometric force could then be made to determine if practical uses could be found.

e. Regardless of the results of the quantification of the force/power, I would like these properties “put on the table” in physics for entrepreneurs and researchers.

f. I feel there would be plenty “to play around” with in studying these radiometric properties. There seems quite a bit of flexibility. For example, based on my work bench radiometer observations, it may even be that if an F2 plated would become heated that the direction of propulsion may reverse upon cooling.

R16. I surmise every aspect of ta radiometer; as per the work of Crookes, Reynolds, Maxwell, Einstein, and others, is known to science.

Yet what is unknown is to ask: how could this radiometric physics be used?

An Overlooked Astronomical Force?

R17. A small radiometric force acting over molecular and atomic surfaces could move even a large mass. In the primordial spiral (radiometric) galaxies such an accelerative force acting over and within the forming primordial spiral galaxies could be the incipient formation of gravitational forces.

R18. Concurrent with accelerative processes, these radiometric properties could lend support that black hole in-falling matter (itself the result of prior accelerative processes) could continue to provide an accelerative thrust once inside a galactic black hole.

a. As an accelerative prediction, an encapsulated black hole energy thrust could be more pronounced in younger, near primordial galaxies with less galactic black hole mass and less gravitation and less spin.

b. Yet in maturing galaxies a black hole accelerative thrust would likely become less as galactic black holes become more massive, spin increases, and gravitational forces increase.

c. Then, in mature galactic regions, a “crossover” could occur at which a black hole accelerative thrust would no longer be possible.

Gravitational forces could then prevail in evolved galactic regions to an eventual accelerative falling into extinguishment singularities.

Reference & Notes

(1) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crookes_radiometer

I am using basic physics and my observations that a semi independent force (of external factors) is being applied to the inertia of the radiometer vanes.

(2)  https://www.google.com/patents/US20060000215A1  Inventors: Stanley Kremen and Marco Scandurra Jan 5, 2005. The status is as: “abandoned”.

The counter intuitive nature of the radiometric force may have kept these properties from being studied – even though these properties are, to me, apparent in the developer’s work.

(3) Would oscillating energy increase or decrease the transfer of momentum?

(4) An F2 plate itself may serve as sufficient insulation between the two sides.  If using focused light, a silvered side may also not be required as the ambient light in most labs could be less than focused light (or shade “the vehicle”).

(5) Mirrored Au surfaces, as needed, could be used to direct radiant energy both away and onto nanopore surfaces.

(6) In space environments, the interior transfer of molecular momentum would need to be insulated from the external space environment.

A limitation is: with high velocities the flyby time would be reduced and a normal deceleration becomes difficult. (In effect, space exploration is for the benefit of earth.)

(7) Due to its mostly self contained nature, it is unlikely this radiometric form of acceleration would be discovered in space. Its feasibility for space would need to be determined in an earth facility.

Note: a radiometric force may be embedded in gravitational forces as a precursor to gravitational forces. If this would be the case it would also need to be “brought up” from another level to then study in a research facility.

(8) I recall that momentum is momentum regardless of direction. My sense is that “both ends” of a radiometric force and the resulting momentum are being used in the near primordial spiral (radiometric) galaxies. This radiometric force could also be precursor to increasing gravitational forces as in R17 above. (lanceatpondotnet)

(9) These accelerative insights are to be freely used. Copyrights are retained. Limited paper copies may be made.  I may continue editing. March 29, 2021 L. Thompson