A Study of Accelerative Process

&

A Demonstration of Radiometric Properties

This first paper outlines the universe as an accelerative process.

The second paper demonstrates radiometric properties.

This accelerative study “begins” with extinguishment singularities as precursor to the primordial singularity.

A question which comes from these studies is to ask: could gravitational forces also be extinguished?

(Later in this paper, the accelerative process itself provides the answer.)

Extinguishment Singularities

In extinguishment an irreversible collapse would take place as countless galaxies and black holes fall inward. (1) Time and space and motion collapse.

Numerous galaxies with surrounding energy and space/time would not remain in the formed universe.

Attempting to escape energy would also be unable to surmount the inner extinguishment horizon. The night sky, in Oblers’ paradox, retains darkness.

(See also “Extinguishment and Renewal”.)

Energy as the Primary Driver

In the expanding balloon example, the resulting accelerative expansion of the balloon would be secondary to the energy being inputted.

Energy would be the primary driver of the primordial, evolving galaxies in accelerative expansion.

The Microwave Background Radiation

The microwave background radiation would be expanding with accelerative expansion. From a completed frame of reference an observer then measures the microwave background radiation as the cosmic background radiation. The observer’s measure is from a completed frame of reference which has likewise undergone some 14 billion years of cosmological expansion.

Forming Parameters

In tracing back to the primordial universe, time would become less complete.  The reduction becomes as the timelessness of the primordial singularity.

In this accelerative interpretation, the timeless release of primordial plasma could be accounting for the unimageable amounts of energy and mass in the universe.

Closely spaced primordial galaxies form from primordial plasma and reform. As mass builds from primordial energy, gravitational strengths become stronger. Time and space become fuller.

Radioactive atoms form. An observer then measures radioactive decay as the same as every other observer.

Entropy would not function without the formation of mass, space, and time. Entropy, in an oxymoron, would also be “a product” of accelerative process.

Yet entropy, in the breakdown of structure, could keep the universe from becoming “frozen” – even as matter increases in complexity.

Deceleration, in releasing energy, could also be a form of entropy.

An Accelerative Possibility?

As a continuing accelerative process, older regions would have increased time dilation and an increased, formed base of heavier elements. It might then be possible for a class atomic elements to be present which would not be in the local galaxies.

Spectrographs of older galactic regions could be searched for such elements.

Cosmological Redshifting

One could infer the accelerative recession of the local galaxies could also be stretching light and primordial energy waves from other regions.

Yet the primordial singularity itself would have little or no red shifting due to the subsequent accelerative recession of maturing galaxies.

If one would imagine being at the primordial singularity, the receding galaxies would then all be redshifted.

“Far Side” Evolution?

“Most distant known galaxy surprises astronomers with heavy elements, gamma ray burst”. (2)

The redshift of “the most distant galaxy” could be among the most extreme. Yet this distant galaxy could also have a large, though not extreme, redshift from its own accelerative expansion from the primordial singularity.

As an accelerative possibility: deep space exploration of the far reaches of the universe may then show similar evolutionary stages as the local galactic region.

However, the full evolutionary range would likely not be visible. The energy waves of later evolutionary stages would not have time to reach earth (and may also have been subject to extinguishment singularities).

Universal Gravitation

In applying physics, with each doubling of accelerative distance, the “forward pull” of distant, massive gravitational fields would then have little or no effect on the even more distant primordial galaxies. (3)

Conversely, gravitational accelerative forces, as an accelerative product of increasing inertia, mass, and increasing acceleration, could be predominating in the mature galactic regions.

Galactic Acceleration

The accelerative expansion of galaxies could, in its outward expression, follow Einstein’s graph line for bodies under acceleration. This could be from low, macro mass primordial spiral galactic beginnings, then to rapid accent, and with increasing inertia and gravitational buildup to a slowing, a leveling off.

This leveling off could be a mature region then followed by an accelerative decent into extinguishment singularities.

The Milky Way Galaxy would likely be in this leveling off region of “galactic apogees” where the parameters of the universe would be more balanced.

To an observer this changing rate of acceleration could appear as “one straight line” of acceleration from the beginning to an extinguishment ending.

Note: a cosmological constant may also be required to account for past changes in the rate of galactic accelerations, changes which could not be measured.

The First and Second Law of Thermodynamics

The release of white hole energy from “back to back” extinguishment singularities (without formed space and time) could be offsetting extinguishment reductions.

The total quantity of energy in the universe could be as a closed system.

The First Law: the total energy in a closed system is constant.

The Second Law: the quality of energy irreversibly degrades. (4)

In the First Law, primordial energy could have its maximum potential, its highest quality, for building the parameters of the universe.

In the Second Law, extinguishment could be the Second Law’s ultimate degrading.

Both Laws would function within the non changeability of the accelerative process in forming the parameters of the universe.

Note: Einstein in his earlier work felt the universe was static. The accelerative process, as a process, would be unchangeable in giving form to the universe.

Extinguishment and Renewal

In an accelerative perspective a leveling in the rate of galactic acceleration could be occurring in older regions with strong gravitational fields. This could then be followed by an increasing “downward” acceleration with countless galaxies and galactic black holes falling into extinguishment singularities (as terminal black holes). Extinguishment would be complete with no visibility, except galaxies approaching an in-falling boundary.  (See Ref. 1)

The extinguishment of time and space and temperature (as a product of atomic motion) would collapse in extinguishment.

*Gravitational forces would also collapse as gravitational forces could no longer be “supported” by accelerative process and by the “un-forming” parameters.

If “outside” parameters such as space/time and mass (including black matter) would no longer be available, such an extinguishment singularity could continue collapsing of its own, leaving voids in the universe.

However; energy could be “recollected” in extinguishment singularities and then “resourced” in primordial plasma (of the highest potential for building the parameters of the universe) as various classes of subatomic particles.

This extinguishment “recollecting” of energy and subsequent resourcing of primordial plasma would then satisfy that energy can neither be created nor destroyed.

The primordial singularity, without the formed parameters, could be the “backside” of extinguishment. The primordial white hole singularity could then timelessly be giving form to primordial plasmas in a timeless renewal of the universe.

Two Descriptions

In the accelerative expansion of matter could be two descriptions. The first would be the completion description of Newton’s physics and Einstein’s highly accurate predictions (to that point in time and space).

In the completion description, an observer’s measure of “the age” of the universe (and of the microwave background radiation) would be a completion measure, also to that point in time and space, of the underlying accelerative process.

The second description would be the underlying accelerative process in forming and shaping the parameters of the universe. The accelerative description would then literally support an observer’s measurements (and the base for life).

Completion descriptions though could not account for “changes due to the accelerative process underlying the evolution of galaxies. The formation of our region of the universe could have had a more rapidly forming past.

A cosmological constant could then be necessary – with an understanding an accelerative description could help fill this formational gap.

The Accelerative Zero

When including the accelerative recession of local galaxies in lengthening primordial energy waves (in addition to other causes of red shift), the universe could have from the white hole primordial singularity an accelerative reference zero of low to no initial primordial galaxy recessions.

In accelerative process the Principle of Equivalence, at rest in a gravitational field, could then be the same case as at rest in an accelerated frame of reference.

One could also ask: would the primordial reference zero also have an application to mathematics?

Non Reducible Information

The likelihood of non reducible information is inferred from the nature of accelerative process and from the “no information lost paradox”. (5)

As the formed parameters would be accelerative products, information itself could be non reducible. Non reducible information could be as timeless “statelessness” underlying formed time, space, matter, gravitation, and motion itself.

References & Notes

(1) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Attractor

Could the “great attractor” be an extinguishment singularity with no visibility except countless galaxies falling, accelerating, toward an unknown “object”?

(2) https://astronomynow.com/2020/12/22/most-distant-known-galaxy-surprises-astronomers-with-heavy-elements-gamma-ray-burst/

The timelessness of the primordial singularity may result in some distant objects being juxtaposed in age and in evolution.

(3) https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/04/180425131848.htm 

Sourced: Simons Foundation, April 25, 2018, referencing closely spaced,
primordial appearing galaxies with weak appearing gravitational forces.

(4)  http://pespmc1.vub.ac.be/ENTRTHER.html “Entropy and the Laws of Thermodynamics”, Principia Cybernetica Web,  J. de Rosnay, July 3, 1998.

This reference is used for its basic presentation. (It is not so easy to find basic explanations in the modern complexities of science.)

(5) https://www.space.com/24899-black-holes-stars-information-paradox-html  Katia Moskvitch, Science & Astronomy, March 5, 2014.

Other Notes & Sources

(6) “Hubble Legacy” J. Bell with forward by astronaut J. Gunsfeld, Sterling Publishing Co. New York, NY, 2020. I am influenced by these dynamic Hubble photographs. What is the process which could “put in place” this dynamism and the highly accurate predictions of Einstein’s and Newton’s physics?

(7) Extinguishment singularities could also represent countless prior “galactic universes” with the same accelerative process.

(8) In cosmological renewal, former extinguishments may be hinted at in the cooler spots of the microwave background radiation.

(9) Newtonian physics and Einstein’s physics would be completion measurements and predictions “out of” the underlying incompletion of accelerative process – as always a process “reaching toward” completion.

(10) As a science fiction speculation I wonder if it might it be possible “to go under” the formed parameters to put a quantum signal in “statelessness”?

In this science fiction, with minimal or no time and space, a quantum signal could then reach and be returned “quickly” from distant civilizations.

Without formed time and space there would also be no violation of the fundamental velocity of such a signal.

The “non properties” of quantum computing are intriguing here in perhaps being “under” the physical.

Perhaps for an other time to explore, the light reaching earth would represent “fossil light”. Yet each galaxy would also have its “now”, its present moment, in time and space. Although just science fiction, I wonder if the universe might have an universal “now moment” for all existing galaxies, suns, and planets?

(11) From my paper of September 9, 2014 (and also of March 29, 1994).

 “The counts are so high…. we see about 25,000 of these blue galaxies in a spot of sky as big as the full moon. …. recession stretches out the wavelengths of distant objects in a red shift effect. ….Powerful waves of ultraviolet light, normally invisible, have been shifted into the blue part of the spectrum….”

(1) Astronomers Studying Fuzzy Blue Clues to Evolution of Universe, Charles Petit, San Francisco Chronicle, June 23, 1989, quoting astronomers Richard Kron and David Koo, et al.”

In the above, our accelerative recession could be causing the stretching of the energy waves of these primordial appearing galaxies.

(12) In complex life, as human type life, genetic variety in the gene pool could increase adaptability to the implied changing geologic and changing environments. (I feel Teilhard would have approved this interpretation.)

(13) I came to study accelerative process through the works of Teilhard. I realized his description of evolutionary processes is underlaid by an accelerative process.

Man’s Place in Nature”, Teilhard de Chardin, 1956 edition, Albin Michel, Harper Row, 1966, especially footnotes 1 & 2 under V. The Significance of Life in the Universe. (I would replace “Man’s with Humanity’s”.)

In all respect to Teilhard, my sense of accelerative process is human type life gives a completion to the universe which would not otherwise be possible.

This “completion could be shared with “who would hold the universe”. Yet to put this sharing “outside” of the human would be disconnectedness from “the whole”.

(14) I look forward each month to the current topics and trends in “Scientific American”. The February 2021 issue, “Cosmic Conundrum” by Clara Moskowitz, has current thoughts on the cosmological constant.

In Accelerative processes “vacuum energy” would not be the prime mover.

In accelerative process it would be first primordial energy, then gravitational buildup, and then followed be an accelerative decent into terminal singularities.

A Demonstration of Radiometric Properties

L. Thompson

I am using the following demonstration based on a hypothetical, non polluting “engine vehicle”. Yet it seems to me that it would be unlikely that such an “engine/vehicle” could compete with the technology being developed today for efficient and less polluting earth engines. Such modern technology is capable of applying relatively large amounts of energy to small engines.

I am though using the efficiencies developed below to call attention that nature may already “be there” with similar efficiencies.

Note to Reviewer

Please consider the following properties as within the broader context of accelerative process. Please also set aside “not possible” responses until the demonstration would be the determination of what may or may not be possible.

R1. In my workbench vacuum observations, the radiometer force is in close proximity to the vane surfaces and to the vane edges.

The radiometer force is being applied to overcome the inertia of four vanes and harness.

R2. Credited is William Crookes’ 1870’s observations, and his subsequent design of the radiometer. (1)

R3. The developers indicate “The Encapsulated Radiometric Engine”, US20060000215A1 (2) substantially increases a radiometric force to being demonstrable in a full or greater atmospheric pressure.

I do not have a technical background to evaluate the magnitude of the force indicated by the developers. I am though making the assumption that this radiometric force would be substantial over that expressed within a radiometer.

a. Perhaps due to the complexity of extracting the interior propulsion to the external propellers “the encapsulated radiometric engine” is now abandoned.

b. Also the “encapsulated engine” could quickly reach higher RPM. The interior medium drag friction of the rotating paddles of the F2 plates could quickly have “the engine” working against itself.

c. The counter intuitive nature of the radiometer force may also have “obscured” a study of the nature of these radiometric properties.

R.4 In “The Encapsulated Radiometric Engine”, US20060000215A1, paragraphs [0006-8] is an F2 nanopore plate [0006, F2 Plate], mounted in the open air.

R5. One could visualize that when an F2 type plate would be attached within a “test vehicle” that the force would continue to be applied. The plate would still be free to move, now as an integral component of “the vehicle”.

The transfer of molecular momentum to the F2 plate would remain, as before, as the same physics. The “vehicle” would be accelerated by the same force.

R6. A nanopore plate with similar specifications may need to be fabricated. (I previously made a request, without response, to MIT asking if an F2 plate might still be available.)

a. An F2 plate could be made without the embedded thermocouples.

Although the embedded thermocouples could better direct energy on to the F2 plates, sufficient force/power could still be generated without thermocouples (to reduce cost) by using focused light sources. (The test is to confirm this.)

b. Once an F2 type plate would be in hand and with little further expense, the demonstration could be under taken by students. (Note: other than “back of the napkin” calculations, the demonstration comes first. The detailed calculations would come after the confirmation of these radiometric properties.)

R7. Would some larger inter spaced openings facilitate re-circulation or would the F2 Plate nanopores be of a sufficient size for circulation of de-energized molecules back through the center of the nanopores?

(I am reminder of the near surface slip effects on the radiometer vane edges. A small radiometric local force acting on molecular and atomic surfaces could move could move even a galaxy. Such a force may also have some similarities to gravitational forces.)

R8. As a pretest, focus light on a suspended nanopore plate. A strong response (as more than convection currents) would proceed to the next step.

In the following demonstration dim the focused light and then increase the intensity to observe the response.

R9. a. A “test vehicle” for the support of say 4 F2 type plates could be an open, transparent cylinder, say 6 cm in diameter and 12 cm in length, mounted on wheels set upon a level to an up sloping surface. (The actual dimensions can be varied. A square shaped vessel could also be used.)

b. The plates are to be attached, fixed perpendicular to the long axis. Two focused lights are to be on each side of “the vehicle”. The “test vehicle” should also be relatively light weight.

c. Exterior and interior temperatures and pressures are to be near room temperature and atmospheric pressure.

d. If using embedded thermocouples, an energy supplying battery could be mounted inside “the vehicle” to also show the internalization of the force.

e. Apply focused light to the F2 plates of the open ended “vehicle”.

R10. With positive confirmation, next fully close “the test vehicle” by gluing the same or similar transparent material to the ends of “the vehicle”. 

Install a pressure release vent (or leave a small opening) to relieve excess pressure. For safety, turn off the energy source before braking “the vehicle”.

With focused lights on each side, confirm the movement of the now “closed vehicle”.

R11. Enclosing the plates to input energy into the macro “vehicle” momentum will be apparent when the energy transfer is diagrammed to “the vehicle” macro momentum.

In this special case, this is the transfer of micro momentum to a larger mass when the inertia of a larger mass is not excessive.

R12. As the force is applied within a larger mass, “internal” is used as to the exterior of “the vehicle”.

In this radiometric physics, it seems there would be little difference as to whether the surface of a larger macro mass would be on the inside or on the outside or within the interior surfaces of the nanopores of the larger mass.

*Note: in a narrow sense this would not be an internal force. It could though be an exertion of a force on a surface, both internal and external.

R13. Based on radiometric properties, the “engine or vehicle” could have:

a. The vehicle enclosure serves as a driveshaft, thus reducing weight.

b. Interior moving parts are on the molecular level by eliminating the interior paddle F2 plate rotation of “the encapsulated engine”, reducing friction and weight.

c. The interior force being generated is now being applied to overcome the vehicle inertia and the external air resistance.

d. The velocity of the interior molecular medium could be high. Yet the external velocity, in comparison, could be low. This differential would reduce the frictional drag of the external air resistance.

(The spin rate of a black hole could also be high while the outward accelerative c propulsion could be lower in accelerative expansion.)

e. “The vehicle” could be propelled over a frictionless surface (though likely skidding). Once set in motion, the motion continues on a frictionless surface.

f. The vehicle would run cooler when in motion. (This is why the power of a conventional engine is reduced to idle when braked.)

g. De-energized molecules become a dead weight, yet the de-energized molecules would still be accelerated to a new base vehicle velocity.

h. The de-energized molecules are encapsulated, to be reused. There would thus be no release of either pollution particles or of pollution gases.

R14. It is unknown if this hypothetical efficiency might lead to simplified, non polluting radiometric engines. It may not come close or to be practical to match the power of say the 4000 RPM of a conventional engine.

a. After a positive demonstration of the above properties, the quantification of the force could be made and a determination made as to if such properties could be useful.

b. I am personally curious if these radiometric properties could develop sufficient force and power to be used in “stand alone” propulsion.

R15. I surmise every aspect of the force taking place in a radiometer; as per the work of Crookes, Reynolds, Maxwell, Einstein, and the work of others, is known to science.

Yet what seems unknown is: how could this radiometric physics be used?

An Overlooked Astronomical Force?

R16. Concurrent with accelerative processes, these radiometric properties could lend support that black hole in-falling matter (itself the result of prior accelerative processes) could continue to provide an accelerative thrust once inside a galactic black hole.

a. As an accelerative prediction, an encapsulated black hole energy thrust could be more pronounced in younger, near primordial galaxies with less galactic black hole mass and less gravitation.

b. Yet in maturing galaxies a black hole accelerative thrust would likely become less as galactic black holes become more massive, the spin increases, and gravitational forces increase.

c. Then, in mature galactic regions, a “crossover” could occur at which a black hole accelerative thrust would be no longer possible.

Gravitational forces could then prevail in evolved galactic regions to an eventual accelerative falling into extinguishment singularities.

Reference & Notes

(1) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crookes_radiometer

I do not have a technical background to evaluate the listed references. I am using basic physics and my observations that a semi independent force (of external factors) is being applied to the inertia of the radiometer vanes.

(2)  https://www.google.com/patents/US20060000215A1  Inventors: Stanley Kremen and Marco Scandurra Jan 5, 2005. The status is as: “abandoned”. As indicated, abandonment could also be due to the design complexity.

The counter intuitive nature of the radiometric force may have also kept these properties from being studied – even though these properties are, to me, apparent in the developer’s work.

(3) Would oscillating energy increase or decrease the transfer of momentum?

(4) An F2 plate itself may serve as sufficient insulation between the two sides.  If using focused light, a silvered side may also not be required as the ambient light in most labs could be less than focused light (or shade “the vehicle”).

(5) Mirrored Au surfaces, as needed, could be used to direct radiant energy both away and onto nanopore surfaces.

(6) In space environments, the interior transfer of molecular momentum would need to be insulated from the external space environment. A limitation is with high velocities the flyby time would be reduced and a normal deceleration becomes difficult. (In effect, space exploration is for the benefit of earth.)

(7) Due to its mostly self contained nature, it is unlikely this radiometric form of acceleration would be discovered in space. Its feasibility for use in space would need to be determined in an earth facility.  

(8) I recall that momentum is momentum regardless of direction. My sense is that “both ends” of a radiometric force and the resulting momentum are being used in the near primordial spiral (radiometric) galaxies. This radiometric force could also be precursor to increasing gravitational forces. (lanceatpondotnet)

(9) These accelerative insights are to be freely used. Copyrights are retained. Limited paper copies may be made.  I may continue editing as I work to bring a broad process into focus. March 8, 2021 L. Thompson