A Simplified Radiometric Engine?
This radiometric paper is to show that the following nonpolluting radiometric properties could be possible. Headings R14 and R15 would also lend support to my following, second paper on accelerative processes.
As per the prior work of MIT researchers and others, my proposal for a simplified radiometric engine would release no exhaust gases.
I am making the assumption that the force/power in the developer’s “encapsulated radiometric engine” would be substantial as compared to the minute radiometer force I observed in my workbench vacuum chamber.
A Simplified Radiometric Engine
R1. Credited are William Crookes’ 1870’s observations and his design of the radiometer. (1)
R2. “The Encapsulated Radiometric Engine”, US20060000215A1 (2) substantially increases a radiometric force to now being demonstrable in a full or greater atmospheric pressure.
In a full atmosphere the “encapsulated engine” would not need to be fully enclosed (except to block out dust and moisture).
“The engine” I propose uses the general name: “the radiometric engine”.
R3. The developer’s “encapsulated radiometric engine” is indicated as “abandoned”. The radiometric force in a radiometer is counter intuitive. This may have kept simplifying “the encapsulated engine”. The complexity of “the engine” may also have contributed to abandonment. The interior rotating paddles at higher RPM could also have the “encapsulated engine” working against itself.
R4. The comparatively costs would be relatively small. With F2 nanopore plates with imbedded thermocouples in hand, confirmation demonstrations at various facilities could readily be undertaken.
R5. In “The Encapsulated Radiometric Engine”, US20060000215A1 , a rotating Fig.2 nanopore plate is shown inside the “encapsulated engine”, Fig. 6.
a. Visualize the “encapsulated engine” in Fig. 6. Next remove one or both ends so that the “capsule” is open to the atmosphere.
b. Next visualize that when the nanopore plate would instead be attached permanently and perpendicular to the long sides of the enclosure; the force would continue to be applied. The nanopores in the plates would continue to give direction to the force/power being generated.
c. Yet the nanopore plate(s) would still be free to move, now as an integral component in “the vehicle”.
d. “The radiometric engine” could be mounted on wheels or on skids (to better demonstrate the interiorization of the radiometric force).
The transfer of molecular momentum to the F2 nanopore plate(s) would remain, as before, as the same physics. The “vehicle” would be accelerated by the same force.
d. Next visualize on reclosing the ends, the capsule would still remain free to move. The force/power would still be the same. However; as also per the developer’s “encapsulated radiometric engine”, the now closed, now simplified “radiometric engine” would likewise release no exhaust gases.
R6. Properties of “A Radiometric Engine”
Based on the radiometric force/power being generated, this simplified “radiometric engine” could have:
a. Interior moving parts are on the molecular level by eliminating the interior paddle F2 plate rotation of “the engine”. This would also eliminate interior drag friction on an F2 plate.
The interior force/power generated is instead now being fully directed to overcome the vehicle inertia and the external air resistance.
b. The velocity of the interior molecular medium could be high. Yet the external velocity of “the vehicle”, in comparison, could be low. This differential could also reduce the frictional drag of the external atmosphere.
c. The vehicle would run cooler when in motion. (This is why the power of a conventional engine is reduced to idle when stopped.)
d. “The vehicle” enclosure now serves as the driveshaft, thus reducing weight.
e. “The vehicle” could be propelled over a frictionless surface (though likely skidding). Once set in motion, the motion would continue.
f. De-energized molecules become a dead weight, yet the de-energized molecules would also still be accelerated to a new base vehicle velocity. The de-energized molecules could still be reused to be re-energized.
g. A bank or series of radiometric plates with embedded thermocouples, on a spacing of say 1 cm could, in a relatively small engine space, have a large surface area in relation to the size of “a vehicle”.
R77. Quantifying the Radiometric Force/Power
A radiometric force engine may not match the energy released in say the 4000 RPM of a conventional engine. Yet I have neither the means or the expertise to make a determination as to quantifying the radiometric force.
A small team with expertise could make this determination.
Note: I hope to read in future literature the applications to which this radiometric physics might be applied. I foresee if applications were found on earth that such applications might then also find applications on Mars.
(I have some further thoughts on this after the initial testing confirmation.)
R8. Other Comments
a. The power supplied to the embedded thermocouples could be varied. This would find “the sweet spot” where the propulsion being generated matches the power input – without excessively heating the nanopore plates. This could also reduce the need for cooling the F2 plates.
(As indicated, the transfer of motion to “the motion of vehicle/engine” itself would help to keep the plates from overheating.)
b. In an enclosed radiometric force engine install a pressure release vent to relieve excess pressure. For safety, turn off the energy source before braking “the vehicle”. Also do not stand either in front or in the rear of the engine. (On cooling “the engine” might move in the opposite direction.)
c. The initial testing should be near room temperature and atmospheric pressure.
d. Excessive weight could result in overheating the engine – as also in conventional engines which would be geared too high for the weight of the vehicle.
R9. As the force is applied within a larger mass, “internal” is used as to the exterior of “the vehicle”.
Yet in this radiometric physics, it seems there would be little difference as to whether the surface of a larger macro mass would be on the inside or on the outside or within the interior surfaces of the nanopores of a larger mass.
In a narrow sense this would not be an internal force. It could though be an exertion of a force on a surface, both internal and external.
R10. I feel there would be plenty “to play around” here in these radiometric characteristics. There seems quite a bit of flexibility. As from my workbench radiometer observations, it may even be that an F2 plate may upon cooling briefly reverse the direction of propulsion.
R11. Once fully enclosed; different mediums and different pressures and temperatures could be tested. An enclosed “radiometric engine” could be its own testing laboratory.
R12. After confirmation, in the uniqueness of a radiometric engine; in the transfer of molecular momentum to the F2 Nanopore Plates there would be no gears, no shaft, no propeller, no levers, and over low friction surfaces, wheels would also not be necessary.
My sense is these well used mechanical devices are for use in a completed frame of reference. Radiometric physics would, in accelerative process, underlie completion physics. In its ability to transfer motion radiometric physics could then underlie the wheel.
R13. I surmise every aspect of a radiometer is known to science as per the work of Crookes, Reynolds, Maxwell, Einstein, and others. Yet what is unknown is: how could radiometric physics be applied?
An Application to Astronomy?
R14. Radiometric Force and Black Holes
a. Concurrent with accelerative processes, these radiometric properties could lend support that black hole in-falling matter (itself from prior accelerative processes) could continue to provide an accelerative thrust once inside the earlier black holes.
b. The similarity with “an enclosed radiometric engine” would be that accelerative forces could be contained within a black hole and still provide a directional thrust.
c. As an accelerative prediction, an encapsulated black hole energy thrust could be more pronounced in younger, near primordial galaxies which have less galactic black hole mass, less gravitation, and less spin. In older galaxies a black hole accelerative thrust could become less as galactic black holes become more massive, spin increases, and gravitational forces also increase.
R15. A primordial radiometric force could also have similarities to those of an radiometric engine. A radiometric force in the evolution of the primordial to maturing spiral galaxies could have contributed to the resulting expansion of matter in the universe.
References & Notes
(2) https://www.google.com/patents/US20060000215A1 Inventors: Stanley Kremen and Marco Scandurra Jan 5, 2005. I am revisiting this earlier work from a novice’s perspective.
(3) Would oscillating energy increase or decrease the transfer of momentum?
(4) Would some larger interspaced openings in the nanopore plates enhance the recirculation of the de-energized molecules?
(5) Mirrored Au surfaces, as needed, could direct radiant energy both away and onto nanopore surfaces. June 17, 2021 LT
An Outline of the Universe as an Accelerative Process
A Novice’s Perspective
The key to this accelerative study is to include the local galaxies as also receding in an accelerative expansion from the primordial white hole singularity.
The resulting accelerative expansion of the universe from the primordial singularity would be secondary to the energy being inputted. The portion of the redshift due to the expansion itself would be secondary to the cause of the expansion.
Energy would be the primary driver of the near primordial and the forming spiral galaxies in accelerative expansion. (Recall the expanding balloon.)
The Microwave Background Radiation
The microwave background radiation would also be expanding with accelerative expansion. From a completed frame of reference an observer then measures the microwave background radiation as the cosmic background radiation.
An observer’s measure from a completed frame of reference would be in-step with the cosmological expansion from the white hole primordial singularity – now some 14 billion light years over the cosmological horizon.
The Forming Parameters
In tracing back to the primordial universe, time would become less complete. The reduction becomes as the timelessness of the primordial singularity.
In the accelerative process in an opposite primordial interpretation; the timeless release of primordial plasma could be accounting for the unimaginable amounts of energy and mass (mass as a product of energy).
Closely spaced primordial spiral galaxies form from primordial plasma and then reform. As mass builds from primordial energy; gravitational strengths become stronger. Time and space become fuller.
The spiral shaped, primordial galaxies could also be indicating that an accelerative force could be taking shape within the primordial spiral galaxies.
Entropy would not function without the formation of mass, space, and time.
Entropy, in an oxymoron, would also be “a product” of accelerative process. Yet entropy could keep the universe from becoming “frozen” as successive structure is built from an increasing, yet lower accelerative base.
Radioactive atoms later form. An observer then measures radioactive decay as the same as every other observer.
As a continuing accelerative process, older regions would have increased time dilation and an increased base of heavier atomic elements.
It might then be possible for another class of atomic elements. The spectrographs of older galactic regions could be searched for such elements.
One could infer the accelerative recession of the local galaxies could also be stretching light and primordial energy waves from other regions (in addition to the other causes of redshifting).
Yet the primordial singularity itself would have little or no red shifting due to the subsequent accelerative recession of the maturing galaxies.
If one would imagine being at the primordial singularity, the receding galaxies would all be redshifted away from the primordial white hole singularity.
In this accelerative outline the primordial singularity is the accelerative zero reference for commencement of the succeeding galactic evolutionary stages.
When “viewed” from the primordial singularity, distant galaxies would also have an individual, galactic accelerative redshift.
When using the primordial singularity as the initial accelerative center; as an accelerative possibility: deep space exploration of “the far side” of the universe may show similar evolutionary stages.
However, a complete evolutionary range would likely not be visible. The energy waves of later galactic evolutionary stages would not have time to reach earth (and may also have been subject to extinguishment singularities).
Note: the timelessness of the primordial singularity may result in some distant objects in “the far reaches” of the universe being juxtaposed in evolutionary sequence.
In accordance with gravitational attraction; distant, massive gravitational fields would have little or no “pull” on primordial galaxies. (1)
Gravitational accelerative forces, as a product of increasing inertia, mass, and increasing acceleration from a lower base, could then predominate in mature galactic regions.
The accelerative expansion of galaxies could follow Einstein’s graph line for bodies under acceleration. This could be from low mass primordial spiral galactic beginnings, then to rapid accent, and then with increasing inertia and gravitational buildup to a slowing, a leveling off.
This leveling off in mature galactic regions could then followed by an accelerative decent into extinguishment singularities.
The Milky Way Galaxy would likely be in a leveling off region of “galactic apogees” where the parameters of the universe could be more balanced.
Extinguishment and Renewal
A leveling in the rate of galactic acceleration could be occurring in mature regions with strong gravitational fields. This could then be followed by an increasing “downward” acceleration with countless galaxies and galactic black holes falling into extinguishment singularities (as terminal black holes). Extinguishment would be complete with no visibility, except the galaxies approaching an in-falling boundary. (2)
In support of extinguishment singularities, in Oblers’ paradox the night sky retain darkness. In extinguishment even attempting to escape energy would be unable to surmount an extinguishment horizon. Due to the most extreme conditions, there would be no outside universe to return to.
Gravitational forces would also collapse as gravitational forces could no longer be “supported” by accelerative process (and by the “un-forming” parameters).
A collapsing extinguishment singularity, when no longer “fed” by galaxies and any dark matter within reach, could continue collapsing of its own accord, leaving voids in the universe.”
However; energy and mass (as a “tied up” form of energy) could be “recollected” in extinguishment singularities and then “resourced” in primordial white hole plasma. Thus satisfying that energy can neither be created nor destroyed.
With the extinguishment of the formed parameters, without time and space, extinguishment singularities could be as “back to back” with the primordial white hole energy plasma.
In the First Law of Thermodynamics the release of primordial white hole energy from prior extinguishments could then have its maximum potential, its highest quality, for renewing the parameters of the universe.
Note: extinguishment singularities could also be the extinguishment of galaxies from former “universes” with the same accelerative processes.
A Small Problem
In accelerative process the matter in galaxies could originally have had a primordial “quantum jump”, as instantaneous, as without time, to the subatomic plasma energy of the white hole singularity. This quantum jump of individual “packets” of energy, in the timelessness of the primordial singularity could, always be taking place.
Hence the matter in galaxies could originally have come from an instantaneous quantum beginning.
Although this would seem to solve the problem – that primordial plasma could have had an instantaneous beginning (in support of a “one time” acceleration); it cannot solve the entire universe as having an instantaneous beginning at the “same instant”.
Yet how human type life evolves in the universe and measures and describes the universe would set a completion of the universe. An observer then gives a completion to the universe which would not otherwise be obtainable.
Describing the universe as “a onetime acceleration” could then be a confirmation of the completion of one’s own frame of reference.
A “one time acceleration description” would then also be a “completion property” of the underlying accelerative process.
Hence; in accelerative process an observer’s measurements and an observer’s measure of the age of the universe are left “as is”, without change.
“The change” would be in recognizing the underlying accelerative and evolutionary processes taking place – in recognizing a process oriented description of the universe.
In the accelerative expansion of matter could be two descriptions. The first would be the completion descriptions of Newton’s physics and Einstein’s highly accurate predictions (to that point in time and space).
In completion descriptions at rest in a gravitational field could be the same as at rest in an accelerated frame of reference. (The Principle of Equivalence)
In completion descriptions, an observer’s measure of “the age” of the universe, and of the microwave background radiation, would be completion measures, as also to that point in time and space, of the underlying accelerative process.
The second description would be the underlying accelerative process of change and motion in forming and shaping the parameters of the universe.
The accelerative description would be the underlying “support” for an observer’s completion descriptions and measurements.
In effect, without the underlying accelerative process one would not have the universe nor the completion of one’s frame of reference.
Completion descriptions though could not account for “changes due to the accelerative process underlying the evolution of galaxies. The formation of our region of the universe could have had a more rapidly forming past.
A cosmological constant may then be necessary in completion descriptions – with an understanding the underlying accelerative description may help fill the accelerative gap of completion descriptions.
The Accelerative Zero
When including the accelerative recession of local galaxies in lengthening primordial energy waves (in addition to the other causes of red shift), the universe could have from the white hole singularity an accelerative reference zero of low to no initial primordial galaxy recessions.
Would the accelerative reference zero have an application to mathematics?
Note: The accelerative zero would underlie, in a completed frame of reference, an observer’s zero.
Non Reducible Information
The likelihood of non reducible information is inferred from the nature of accelerative process and from the “no information lost paradox”. (3)
As the formed parameters would be accelerative products, information itself could be non reducible. Non reducible information could be “in” a timeless “statelessness”, underlying time and space, matter and gravitation, and the finiteness of motion.
Sourced: Simons Foundation, April 25, 2018, referencing closely spaced, primordial appearing galaxies with weak appearing gravitational forces.
As indicated, primordial weak gravitational fields would have little or no effect on distant, evolved galaxies; likewise distant, evolved galaxies with strong gravitational fields would have little or no gravitational pull on primordial galaxies.
(2) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Attractor . Could the “great attractor” be an extinguishment singularity with no visibility except countless galaxies falling, accelerating, toward an unknown “object”?
(3) https://www.space.com/24899-black-holes-stars-information-paradox-html Katia Moskvitch, Science & Astronomy, March 5, 2014.
Notes & Other Sources
(4) “Hubble Legacy” J. Bell with forward by astronaut J. Gunsfeld, Sterling Publishing Co. New York, NY, 2020. I am influenced by the Hubble photographs.
(5) In cosmological renewal, former extinguishments may be hinted at in the cooler spots of the microwave background radiation. This may be due to the extinguishment of motion and temperature in former extinguishment singularities.
(6) Newtonian physics and Einstein’s physics would be completion measurements and predictions “out of” the underlying incompletion of accelerative process – as always a process “reaching toward” completion.
(7) As science fiction: might it be possible “to go under” the formed parameters to put a quantum signal into “statelessness”? In this science fiction, the “non properties” of quantum computing would be intriguing.
Without formed time and space there would be no violation of the fundamental velocity of such a quantum signal. With minimal or no time and space, a quantum signal could reach and be returned “quickly” from other civilizations.
In this science fiction, the galaxies in the universe could each have their own time and space as a present “now”. A quantum signal might then reach civilizations in which the light and energy from their galaxies could yet be tens of millions of light years removed from reaching earth.
(8) In a personal paradox I seem in my accelerative studies to be in quantum mechanics and in quantum physics; yet without having “book knowledge”.
(9) These accelerative insights are in the public domain. Copyrights are retained. Limited paper copies may be made.
I apologize for my often online editing (which is now largely finished) as I work to simplify a broad process. (lanceatpon.net) June 17, 2021, L. Thompson
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