This Accelerative Universe

L. I. Thompson

This paper explores the universe as an accelerative process with emphasis on extinguishment and renewal. My second paper is on radiometric energy.

Extinguishment Black Hole Singularities as Precursor to Renewal.

With accelerative expansion, increasing gravitational forces could lead to a “leveling off” of galactic recessions. This “apogee” could be followed by older regions with massive black holes falling (as accelerating) in extinguishment.

Such black hole singularities would have no visibility, except the galaxies approaching an in-falling boundary of an unknown “object”. (3)

“Escaping” energy would also fall back again and again, unable to surmount an inner singularity boundary.

When mass and associated parameters would no longer be within an in-falling range, an extinguishment singularity could continue collapsing. The interconnectedness of space and time and mass and motion and gravitational forces would ensure the collapse of all parameters.

Renewal

With the collapse of space and time, such singularities could be as “back to back” with the primordial singularity. The primordial singularity would then be representing extinguishment and renewal.

In support of cosmological renewal, the microwave background cooler spot could be from prior terminal singularities without motion and hence without temperature.

Terminal singularities could also have an ultimate darkness which, without intervening space and time, could be as “a tunneling” into the opaqueness of the primordial singularity.

In renewal, The First Law of Thermodynamics would support primordial plasma as of highest quality for the renewal of mass, space, time, gravitational forces, and the resulting accelerative expansion.

With accelerative (as a net acceleration) building of form and structure and the resulting parameters, entropy would increase and be the Second Law of Thermodynamics.

Entropy in the breakdown of form and order would insure that natural processes would not become “frozen” even as more complex structures could also take place.

An Accelerative Interpretation

In the timelessness of the primordial singularity the release of plasma energy could also always be taking place. An accelerative process description could then be accounting for vast amounts of new galactic matter as always forming from the primordial singularity (in which time would also be “a product” of the resulting accelerative expansion).

The Microwave Background Radiation

The local region of the universe would also have expanded with accelerative expansion. The cosmic background radiation would likewise have expanded and be measured from one’s frame of reference (in completed time and space).

In an accelerative process description the MBR could still be forming and expanding with cosmological expansion to be measured as background radiation – now some 14 billion years from earth over the cosmological horizon.

Likewise an observer in say another 14 billion light years of accelerative expansion from the primordial singularity could again measure the MBR as an observer on earth would today.

An Extinguishment Stage of the Evolved Galaxies

In “The Hubble Constant: Tension and Release”, is a drawing or sketch of the universe.  At the upper end are evolved galaxies.  (4)

Yet one could infer another stage could be past the evolved galaxies as a final reduction, extinguishment in-falling, without escaping energy and darkness.

However with the “extinguishment” of space the non-visibility opaqueness of an extinguishment black hole singularity stage could be back to back with the opaqueness of the primordial singularity.

The “one time” acceleration” could be from an intense gravitation. Yet, on the other hand, an accelerative process description could also represent as “in” the primordial singularity the breakdown of former gravitational forces.

A Cosmological Application

I reflected: what about the energy which would stay outside of even an extinguishment singularity?

Such energy could remain a long time. Yet it seems to me “free” energy would eventually also become “trapped” in succeeding extinguishment singularities.

Extinguishment singularities, over time and space, could be trapping countless galaxies (as prior “universes”) with the surrounding “free” energy. Such energy would also not stay in the universe.

Extinguishment singularities could then ensure that energy would not overly build up in the universe. Thus in satisfying Olbers’s paradox; the astronomical night sky retains its darkness.

The Completion Model and Accelerative Processes

An accelerative process description of the universe as process does not and cannot reach completion.

The “one time” acceleration (big bang) is the cosmological model which “sets” the completion of the universe. This completion includes the observer and an observer’s instruments, including time and age, in setting completion.

In accelerative process an observer’s measures and an observer’s measure of time would be complete measures. The “change” would be an accelerative process description could underlie an observer’s frame of reference.

In accelerative processes Einstein’s “equivalence elevator”, whether ascending or descending from the hotel’s cosmological conference room, would be in an underlying accelerated frame of reference.

The primordial singularity would then be the accelerative reference zero for an underlying accelerative frame of reference and the resulting accelerative processes.

References and Notes

(1) https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/04/180425131848.htm 
Source is Simons Foundation, April 25, 2018, referencing closely spaced, primordial appearing galaxies with weak appearing gravitational fields.

(2) “David Koo …we see about 25,000 of these blue galaxies in a spot of sky as big as the full moon.” Charles Petit, the San Francisco Chronicle, June 23, 1989.

There seems no follow thru to these primordial appearing galaxies with weak gravitation. Could this be because there is no process centered description of the universe?

An accelerative centered process description could include these highly redshifted to blue wave, weak gravitation, and subsequent galactic evolution.

 (3) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Attractor .  Could “The Great Attractor” be an extinguishment singularity with no visibility except countless galaxies with massive black holes falling, as in accelerating, toward an unknown “dark matter object”?

(4) “The Hubble Constant: Tension and Release”, Arwen Rimmer, Sky and Telescope. pgs. 14-21, March 2022. As a novice to the study of accelerative processes (as will be others), I am pointing out that an accelerative process description could extend “past” the diagramed sketch.

I note the question mark after time and gravity’s strength. In an accelerative process description the question mark(s) are removed.

If one could diagram out the accelerative expansion of the universe, would the diagram also follow Einstein’s graph line as bodies under acceleration for the accelerative expansion of the universe?

5. The work and the discoveries of others make this paper possible. (If I have an original contribution it would be in the following paper.)

6.  “Scanning the Cosmos for Dark Matter”, Chanda Prescod-Weinstein, Scientific American, Vol. 326, #4, pgs. 58-65, April 2022. 

In accelerative processes the opaqueness of the primordial singularity could be as the first dark energy.

7. Red shifting between galaxies due to the resulting accelerative expansion would be secondary to an accelerative process description in “putting in place” the expansion – as in the example of the energy used “to expand the balloon”.

8. The rate of radioactive decay would be the same for all observers. However in older galaxies approaching extinguishment, the remaining life of the atomic elements would be at the expense of the increased time dilation.  

9. The universe itself could be a broad equilibrium with the “beginning” and “ending” stages.

10. https://singularityhub.com/2022/04/15/time-might-not-exist-physicists-say-causation-is-the-basic-feature-of-our-universe  

11.  I read  the works of Teilhard de Chardin. His description of evolutionary processes is also one of accelerative processes.

12. Accelerative processes could “hold” the possibility of be an immeasurable “timeless essence” which in non reducibility would not be of the physical, yet could be “in” the physical. LT

 A Demonstration of the Properties of Radiometric Energy

L.I. Thompson

The first objective of this paper is to call attention to this non polluting form of motion. The second objective is to re-demonstrate the properties of this radiometric physics – within the context of accelerative physics.

 R1. “The Encapsulated Radiometric Engine” US20060000215A1 (1) by using nanopore plates (Fig.6) substantially increases a radiometric force to being demonstrable within a full atmosphere. 

This enclosed “engine” releases no external exhaust.

R2. The patent summery indicates the engine is “abandoned”.  The following simplification may make this “engine” more feasible. 

R3.  As key, visualize that the same force applied to the rotating plates (Fig.6) could also be simplified by being directly applied to “the engine enclosure”. 

a. In “The Encapsulated Radiometric Engine” the nanopore plates with thermocouples are mounted in the rotating paddles of Fig. 6.

b. Instead, fix the rotating shaft at both ends to the engine enclosure.  The shaft is no longer free to rotate.

c. Reattach the nanopore F6 plates with thermocouples perpendicular to the fixed in place shaft/rod.

d. With the application of energy a force is now directed, via the attached plates, along the shaft/rod to the engine enclosure.

When “the vehicle” mass is not excessive and “the vehicle” is also free to move, the same nanopore plates are also free to move, now with “the vehicle” itself.

R4.  a. The radiometric “engine/vehicle” could be mounted on wheels or on rails. A battery could be within the “engine enclosure” to supply energy.

(To reduce costs, classroom demonstrations may use a focused light.)

b. The initial testing is to be near room temperature and atmospheric pressure.

c. Eliminating the interior F6 plate rotation would eliminate interior medium friction. The interior force/power would now be fully directed to overcome vehicle inertia and external air resistance.

This simplification could likely increase efficiency at higher RPM and at higher interior medium pressures. 

d. The “fixed in place” nanopore plates could be reinforced for added strength. (The mean free path calculations may need to be recalculated.)

e. De-energized molecules become a dead weight; yet the molecules would still be accelerated to the new base vehicle velocity. The de-energized molecules (as an interior “exhaust”) could be re-energized at increasing “vehicle” velocities.

f. A series of nanopore plates with thermocouples, on a spacing of say 1 cm, could have a large surface area in relation to the macro weight of “the vehicle”.

R5. Quantifying the Radiometric Force/Power

a. I do not know to what extent this contained radiometric force (as also in a radiometer) would be practical. As a novice I am limited to pointing out the radiometric force in the Fig. 6 plates could be directly applied to “the engine” enclosure. (I am though using my workbench radiometer observations with the the technical – as in the patent summary.)

c. For later testing the force/power could be quantified at lower and higher internal medium pressures, at varying temperatures, different molecular mediums, varying nanopore sizes, and also by oscillating the energy source.

R6. Other Comments

a. The energy supplied to the thermocouples could be varied. This would find “the sweet spot” where the propulsion matches the power input – without over heating the nanopore plates.

This could also reduce the need for cooling the F6 plates. When in motion, the transfer of molecular momentum to macro momentum (in the conservation of energy) would not of itself result in the heating of the nanopore plates.

b. Excessive weight or power could result in over heating the plates (as in conventional engines geared too high).

c. In an enclosed radiometric engine install a pressure release vent to relieve excess pressure. For safety, turn off the energy source before braking “the vehicle”.  Also do not stand in the rear of the engine as on cooling “the engine” may reverse.

R7. It seems little difference in transferring molecular momentum as to if the surfaces of a larger mass would be on exterior or on interior surfaces. 

In a narrow sense this would not be an internal force. It could though be an exertion of a force on either internal or external surfaces.

R8.  Additional Testing

The purpose of this other testing is to confirm in a larger vacuum chamber that an enclosed “radiometric engine”, insulated from the vacuum chamber, could continue to provide an accelerative force from within the vacuum chamber.

a. With an insulated radiometric module (as could be developed from the initial testing) next test the strength of the radiometric force as follows.

The testing could start from somewhat greater than a full atmosphere pressure and then in steps reduced to a complete vacuum.

b. As a comparison control, the testing is concurrently with an unenclosed module with the nanopore plates open to succeeding pressure reductions.

c. In the unenclosed, open module a radiometric force will decrease to being absent or zero at a complete vacuum (as also in a radiometer).

d. In the enclosed module I predict little difference, when increasing the vacuum, by a radiometric force exerted on the enclosed nanopore plates.

The enclosed module will continue to be propelled.

R9. Testing in Space

a. When extending testing to space, insulate the module interior from the external space environment. This would maintain a similar interior space radiometric force as in an earth vacuum chamber. Mirrored Au surfaces could be used to reflect energy either away or onto the nanopore plate surfaces and as also away from the exterior of space probes.

b. It may not be practical for a radiometric force to have the necessary quick acceleration of the escape velocity of rocket propulsion. 

c. A radiometric force may have application to space probes. If so, the transfer of micro momentum, over time and space, to macro probe momentum could be as a “momentum pump” in reaching higher velocities. (See also R4d.)

However a limitation with higher velocities is deceleration would be more difficult as at any one point on the acceleration trajectory, inertia as resistance to change, would also be increased.

d. Although confirmation in space may seem in the realm of science fiction, the inertia of a larger mass could be serving as a base (rather than the earth) to direct a radiometric force.  The energized interior medium, in transferring momentum, is taking place in and through the nanopores (and in a radiometer as slip effects on the vane edges). 

This transfer of momentum is in close proximity to a radiometer vane edges and in the nanopores in close proximity to the surfaces of the nanopores “pores”.

R10. A Cosmological Force?

I am proposing these radiometric properties could apply to an accelerative
force in galaxies and in black holes. Such a force could be a composite force with decelerative and accelerative aspects and with a net acceleration.  Such a force would have an explanation for eluding discovery.

The demonstrable properties of a radiometric force, as in present matter, could be as a now embedded fossil force as from earlier galactic stages.   Such an earlier radiometric force, with galactic energy, could be self contained and could have net acceleration. 

The re-confirmation of these radiometric properties could ask: could radiometric energy be in the accelerative expansion of the universe as “missing” dark energy?

An Accelerative Process Speculation

In accelerative processes the cosmological distances of time and space are necessary to form an observer’s frame of reference. Space travel to even nearby stars would take awhile. High velocity space travel would also have decelerating limitations.

Yet as a speculation for also science friction writers might another way be found to contact distant civilizations.  

Quantum physics seems as connectedness to “that” more than measurable. My studies seem as having a possibility of a timeless, dimensionless “place”.  

If a signal could be put in such “a timeless place”; a signal without time and space, and hence without violating velocity, could as almost instantaneous from one end of the universe to the other. 

Such a signal might be able to establish contact with distant civilizations.  

If it were possible to establish contact with other civilizations, the implication is that galaxies continue to exist (or do not continue to exist) – regardless if the light and energy waves would still be far off from reaching earth.

In my speculation the universe might have universal “time”.  Such universal time would reflect the matter in the  universe as it exists “today”.

References    

 (1)  https://www.google.com/patents/US20060000215A1
Developers: Stanley Kremen and Marco Scandurra, January 5, 2005.

(2) Prior to 2005, http://home.pon.net/lance/cpsolar/paper.htm  Self, the developers may have known from my original work that a radiometric force could be further “internalized”. 

I would like to retire from this interest of mine. Yet I continue to find ways to apply accelerative processes. I may continue editing. June 25, 2022 LT