A Paper on the Universe

L. I. Thompson

This first paper explores the universe as an accelerative process with emphasis on ending and renewal. The second paper demonstrates the properties of radiometric energy.

I begin with black holes as precursor to cosmological renewal.

Black Holes

With accelerative expansion, increasing gravitational forces in mature galaxies could lead to a “leveling off” of galactic recessions. This “apogee” could be followed by older galactic regions with massive black holes falling (as in accelerating) into terminal black hole singularities.

These ending singularities would have no visibility, except the galaxies approaching an in-falling boundary of an unknown “object”. (3)

“Escaping” energy would fall back again and again, unable to escape an inner terminal singularity boundary. Such energy would not stay in the universe.

When mass and associated parameters would no longer be within in-falling range, a terminal singularity could continue collapsing. Once one parameter would be collapsing, the interconnectedness of mass, space, time, and motion would ensure the collapse of all parameters, including gravitation.

Renewal

With the collapse of space, time, mass and gravitational forces, terminal singularities could be “back to back” with the primordial singularity. In effect the primordial singularity would represent both extinguishment and renewal.

In support of renewal, the cosmic background cooler spot could be from prior terminal singularities without atomic motion and hence without temperature.

Terminal singularities could also have an ultimate darkness which could with no longer intervening space and time “extend” into the opaque darkness of the primordial singularity.

In renewal, The First Law of Thermodynamics could support primordial plasma as of highest quality for the renewal of mass, space, time, gravitational forces, and the resulting accelerative expansion.

With the succeeding accelerative building of form and structure, entropy would increase and be the Second Law of Thermodynamics.

Entropy would insure natural processes would not become “frozen” in time and space even as complex structures take place on succeeding evolutionary levels.

An Accelerative Interpretation

In accelerative processes galactic matter could originally be from innumerable “quantum jumps” of individual packets of energy to primordial plasma.

However, in the timelessness of the primordial singularity the instantaneous release (as without time) of plasma energy could always be taking place.

Yet the matter in individual galaxies could come from an instantaneous beginning in innumerable quantum jumps of individual packets of energy.

In an accelerative interpretation, in the timelessness of the primordial singularity, primordial galaxies could then always be forming – accounting for the vast energy and mass in the universe.

Yet an accelerative description, as a process, could not reach completion. (A process reaches toward completion.) Thus the big bang acceleration would be the completion model for the underlying accelerative process.

In accelerative process an observer’s measures and an observer’s measure of time would be complete measures. There would be no changes in an observer’s measurements of time and age of the formed universe. (It just takes 14 billion years to complete our frame of reference.)

The “change” would be in recognizing an accelerative description could underlie an observer’s frame of reference and an observer’s instruments of measurement.

The Microwave Background Radiation

The local region of the universe would also have expanded with accelerative expansion. The cosmic background radiation would likewise have expanded and be measured from our frame of reference in completed time and space.

The MBR though in an accelerative process description could still be forming and expanding with cosmological expansion to be measured as background radiation, now some 14 billion light years over the event horizon from Earth.

Likewise an observer in a civilization in another 14 billion light years of expansion from the primordial singularity could again measure the MBR as an observer on earth would today.

Another Stage

In “The Hubble Constant: Tension and Release”, is a drawing or sketch of the universe.  At the upper end are evolved galaxies.  (4)

Yet the universe seems “cut off”.

One could infer that another stage may be past the evolved galaxies as a final reduction, a terminal in-falling, without escaping energy and utter darkness.

Yet with the “extinguishment” of space and time, the non-visibility darkness of an ending stage could be as back to back with the opaqueness of the primordial.

As indicated, the primordial singularity could be representing extinguishment and renewal.

In an accelerative encompassment, the “one time acceleration” description is from intense gravitation.

Yet an accelerative description could, in addition, represent as also “in” the primordial singularity the breakdown of gravitational forces from former intense gravitational forces (and even former universes).

The Principle of Equivalence

Although not directly measurable in an accelerated frame of reference, accelerative processes, together with accelerative expansion, “builds the base” for an observer’s frame of reference.

In accelerative processes Albert Einstein’s “elevator”, whether ascending or descending from the hotel’s conference room (which is being used for an astronomical convention) would be in a cosmological accelerated frame of reference.

References and Notes

(1) https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/04/180425131848.htm 
Source is Simons Foundation, April 25, 2018, referencing closely spaced, primordial appearing galaxies with weak appearing gravitational fields.

(2) “David Koo …we see about 25,000 of these blue galaxies in a spot of sky as big as the full moon.” Charles Petit, the San Francisco Chronicle, June 23, 1989.

There seems no follow thru to these primordial appearing galaxies with weak gravitation. Could this be because there is no process centered description of the universe?

An accelerative centered process description could include these highly redshifted to blue wave, weak gravitation, and subsequent galactic evolution.

 (3) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Attractor .  Could “The Great Attractor” be an extinguishment singularity with no visibility except countless galaxies with massive black holes falling, as in accelerating, toward an unknown “dark matter object”?

(4) “The Hubble Constant: Tension and Release”, Arwen Rimmer, Sky and Telescope. pgs. 14-21, March 2022. As a novice, I am pointing out that an accelerative process description could extend the diagramed sketch.

5.  “Scanning the Cosmos for Dark Matter”, Chanda Prescod-Weinstein, Scientific American, Vol. 326, #4, pgs. 58-65, April 2022. 

In accelerative processes the opaqueness of the primordial singularity could also be “dark energy”.

6. Red shifting between galaxies due to the resulting accelerative expansion would be secondary to accelerative process in “putting in place” the expansion – as in the example of the energy used “to expand the balloon”.

7. The rate of radioactive decay would be the same for all observers. However in older galaxies approaching extinguishment the remaining life of the atomic elements would be at the expense of the increased time dilation.  

8. https://singularityhub.com/2022/04/15/time-might-not-exist-physicists-say-causation-is-the-basic-feature-of-our-universe  

9. In accelerative processes could be the immeasurable possibility of “timeless essence” which in non reducibility would not be of the physical, yet could be “in” the physical.

10. This paper is possible through the works of others, including Aristotle’s first motion[s].

I regret though I am unable to list other references as I would loose focus.  Yet the references have other references. (I may have a “solution” to this reference dilemma.)  May  17, 2022 LT

A Demonstration of the Properties of Radiometric Energy

L.I. Thompson

The following demonstration has two primary objectives. The first is to call attention to this non polluting form of motion. The second is to demonstrate the properties of this radiometric physics as possibly applying on another level..

 R1. “The Encapsulated Radiometric Engine” US20060000215A1 (1) by using nanopore plates (Fig.6) substantially increases a radiometric force to being demonstrable in a full atmosphere.  The “engine” releases no external exhaust.

R2. As per the patent summery the “engine is indicated “abandoned”.  However the following “engine” simplification may make the “engine” more feasible.

R3.  As key, visualize that the same force applied to the rotating plates (Fig.6) could also be simplified by being directly applied to “the engine enclosure”. 

a. In “The Encapsulated Radiometric Engine” diagram the nanopore plates with thermocouples are mounted in the rotating paddles of Fig. 6.

b. Instead, fix the rotating shaft at both ends to the engine enclosure.  The shaft is no longer free to rotate.

c. Re-orient and attach the nanopore F6 plates perpendicular to the fixed in place shaft/rod. Use the existing nanopore plates with thermocouples.

d. With the application of energy a force is now directed, via the attached plates, along the shaft/rod to the engine enclosure. Yet when the vehicle mass is not excessive., the same nanopore plates are still free to move. 

R4.  a. The radiometric “engine/vehicle” could be mounted on wheels or on rails. A battery could be within the “enclosure” to supply energy.

(Classroom demonstrations, to reduce cost, may use focused light energy.)

b. Eliminating interior F6 plate rotation would eliminate interior medium friction. The interior force/power would be fully directed to overcome vehicle inertia and external air resistance.

This simplification would likely increase the efficiency at the higher RPM and at higher interior medium pressures. 

c. The “fixed in place” nanopore plates could also be reinforced for added strength. (The mean free path calculations could be recalculated.

d. De-energized molecules become a dead weight; yet the molecules would still be accelerated to the new base vehicle velocity. The de-energized molecules (as an interior “exhaust”) could be re-energized at increasing “vehicle” velocities.

e. A series of nanopore plates with thermocouples, on a spacing of say 1 cm, could have a large surface area in relation to the macro weight of “the vehicle”.

R5. Quantifying the Radiometric Force/Power

a. I do not know to what extent this contained radiometric force (as also in a radiometer) would be practical. I am limited to pointing out the radiometric force in the Fig. 6 plates could also be directly applied to “the engine”.

Note: This physics could be on the table for other researchers. Its practically  could then be established. 

b. The initial testing is to be near room temperature and atmospheric pressure.

c. For later testing the force/power could be quantified at lower and higher internal medium pressures, at varying temperatures, different molecular mediums, varying nanopore sizes, and also oscillating energy.

R6. Other Comments

a. The power supplied to the thermocouples could be varied. This would find “the sweet spot” where the propulsion matches the power input – without over heating the nanopore plates.

This could also reduce the need for cooling the F6 plates. When in motion, the transfer of molecular momentum to macro momentum (in the conservation of energy) would not of itself result in the heating of the nanopore plates.

b. Excessive weight or power could result in over heating the plates (as in conventional engines geared too high).

c. In an enclosed radiometric engine install a pressure release vent to relieve excess pressure. For safety, turn off the energy source before braking “the vehicle”.  Also do not stand in the rear of the engine as on cooling “the engine” may reverse.

R7. It seems little difference in transferring molecular momentum as to if the surfaces of a larger mass would be on exterior or on interior surfaces. This in a narrow sense would not be an internal force. It could though be an exertion of a force on either internal or external surfaces.

R8.  Other Testing

The purpose of this other testing is to confirm in a larger vacuum chamber that an enclosed “radiometric engine”, insulated from the vacuum chamber, could continue to provide an accelerative force within the vacuum chamber.

a. With an insulated radiometric module (as could be developed from the initial testing) next test the strength of the accelerative force as follows.

The testing could start from somewhat greater than a full atmosphere pressure and then in steps being reduced to a complete vacuum.

b. As a comparison control, the testing is run concurrently with an unenclosed module with the nanopore plates open to succeeding pressure reductions.

c. In the unenclosed, open module the radiometric force will decrease to being absent or zero at a complete vacuum (as in a radiometer).

d. In the enclosed module I predict little difference, when increasing the vacuum, by the radiometric force on the now interior nanopore plates.

e. When extending testing to space, insulate the module interior from the external space environment. This would maintain a similar space radiometric force as in an earth vacuum chamber. Mirrored Au surfaces could also be used to reflect energy either away or onto the nanopore plate surfaces and as also away from the exterior of space probes.

f.  It does not seem to me that it would be practical for a radiometric force to have the quick acceleration of the escape velocity of rocket propulsion. 

It may though have application to space probes in which the transfer of momentum, over time and space, would be as a “momentum pump” in reaching higher velocities.  A limitation with higher velocities is that deceleration would become more difficult.

g. Although space confirmation would seemingly be in the realm of science fiction, the inertia of a larger mass could be serving as the base (rather than the earth) to direct a radiometric force.  The energized interior medium, in transferring momentum, is taking place in and through the nanopores (and in a radiometer as slip effects around the vane edges). 

R9. Radiometric Energy and Accelerative Expansion

These radiometric properties may apply to an accelerative force in galaxies and black holes. Such a force would be a composite force with decelerative and accelerative aspects and with net acceleration.  

The properties of a radiometric force, as in present matter and gravitational forces, could be as an embedded fossil force from earlier galactic formations.   

The confirmation of these radiometric properties could ask: could radiometric energy as “missing energy” be in the accelerative expansion of the universe?

References

 (1)  https://www.google.com/patents/US20060000215A1
Developers: Stanley Kremen and Marco Scandurra, January 5, 2005.

(2) Prior to 2002, http://home.pon.net/lance/cpsolar/paper.htm  Self

I ask my work be kept on hand for the new James Web Telescope – both for its non discoveries and for its discoveries. 

This paper is integral to: https://www.thisaccelerativeuniverse.com/

I apologize for often online editing as I work to bring in focus a broad process.  lance[at]pon.net    Updated May 17, 2022